№18 2018

#18'2018

CONTENTS

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

Marine space of Northern Pacific as sphere Russian-Chinese interactions in the 21st
Victor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB
RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
Andrey Volynchuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far
East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article is devoted to the potential of maritime cooperation between Russia and China in the
North Pacific region. The authors analyze and compare the two countries’ principal approaches
to maritime policies they implemented since the beginning of XXI century, geographical and
functional directions of their maritime activities, condition and trends of Russia and the PRC
maritime economies’ development, as well as the experience of maritime interaction between them.
Special attention is paid to the condition and problems of the maritime economy of Pacific Russia
to be considered a potentially main counterpart in the maritime cooperation with China. Chinese
leadership policy and to transform PRC into a «great maritime power», its vision of goals and
objectives of international cooperation at sea in the framework of the «One Belt and One Road»
initiative are considered separately. The authors conclude that, to date, the maritime direction of
cooperation is poorly represented in the Russian-Chinese contractual relationship and extremely
limited in forms, scales and practical results. A significant potential of such cooperation can be
realized on the base of active regulation by the governments, with serious financial donations from
the centers and scientific support only.
Key words: North Pacific, Russia, China, national maritime policy, maritime activities, maritime
economy, Russian-Chinese cooperation.

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Regionalism in Interpretation of China: the evolution
of theoretical views and practical policies
Sergey Pestsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East,
FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
With the rise of Xi Jinping and the fifth generation of Chinese leaders in 2012, regional affairs began
to acquire a new, increasingly noticeable sound in China. This allows tell about the beginning of
the formation of Chinese vision of regionalism as a sum of concerted views about the surrounding
regional space, views on regional order and strategies of behavior in the regional environment. The
content of this vision is the result of a fairly long process of theoretical research, conceptual debate
and practical experiments, the origins of which go back to the time of the emergence of modern
China in the middle of the last century. This article is devoted to the evolutionary history of China’s
regionalism, which is represented by two main periods: the first of them — from the beginning of
the 1950s to the end of the 1990s — the period of prehistory of Chinese regionalism and the second,
the period of the birth of the Chinese vision of regionalism, covering the time from the early 2000s
to today.
Keywords: China, regionalism, foreign policy, regional cooperation, peripheral diplomacy, regional
organizations.

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India and the United States: the formation of the Indo-Pacific geopolitical area
Larisa Garusova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East,
FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Modern India is an influential power in the South Asian region, which has the potential of a world
leader. It is expected that by the beginning of 2019, India would have become the fifth and by
2032 the third largest economy in the world after the US and China. India’s growing international,
economic and political influence makes it a desirable partner for any country, including the United
States. Over the past 70 years, US-Indian relations have evolved from a cold distant state to a real
strategic partnership. Currently, both countries are involved in the process of joint structuring of
a new geopolitical area — the Indo-Pacific region. The «Chinese factor» greatly contributed to
the improvement of relations between India and the USA in the 21st century. Both countries are
concerned about its growing military and economic power and are building their economic and
military-political cooperation on the basis of «common democratic values and interests».
A real breakthrough in relations between India and the United States occurred in the 2000s during
the tenure of President George W. Bush (2001-2009). The Bush administration has chosen the
concept of a «democratic India»as the basis of its foreign policy. This foreign policy approach
has survived to the present time. During Barack Obama’s presidency (2009-2016), the strategic
interests and partnerships of India and the United States laid the Foundation for the formation of the
Indo-Pacific region. The administration of President Trump has stepped up military-strategic and
economic cooperation with New Delhi in the format of a new geopolitical space — «Indo-Pacifica».
However, Washington’s excessively «American-centric» foreign policy may harm India’s economic
and political interests. Successful implementation of the Indo-Pacific strategy, the United States
and India will lead not only to weakening the regional position of China, but also to the deterioration
of Russia’s relations with India and the United States. There is a possibility of displacement of
Russia to the periphery of Eurasia. This may encourage Beijing and Moscow to form their own
counterbalance to Washington and New Delhi in Indo-Pacifica.
Keywords: India, USA, China, economic and military cooperation, sanctions, strategic partnership,
anti-Chinese vector, Russia, Indo-Pacific region, counterbalance.

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Spratly Archipelago as object of territorial dispute in the South China Sea
Boris Tkachenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of
the Far East Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok, Russia).
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article examines the Spratly archipelago as one of the disputed areas of the South China
Sea. Physical-geographical and historical essays on the Spratly archipelago are proposed. The
current positions of China and Vietnam on the territorial jurisdiction of the Spratly archipelago are
considered. The Spratly Islands are characterized as an object of multilateral international territorial
dispute between Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Brunei. Economic and
strategic importance of Spratly Islands is shown. The problems of delimitation of marine economic
domains in the water area of the Spratly Islands are characterized.
Keywords: South China Sea, Spratly Archipelago, territorial dispute, Treaty of San Francisco,
China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf,
international maritime law.

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“Small East Asia in Pacific Russia»: Attitudes of Vladivostok, Khabarovsk and Yuzhno-
Sakhalinsk residents to migrants from East Asia
Victor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB
RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
Liliia Larina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB
RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
Svetlana Tomashuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far
East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article presents the results of sociological survey aimed to study the views of Pacific Russia
residents on the migrants from Asian countries which was conducted in summer 2018 in
Vladivostok, Khabarovsk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. The authors analyze the respondents’ attitude to
the foreign migration as a phenomenon and to various categories of Asian migrants in Pacific Russia
(workers, entrepreneurs, students, etc.). They also study some factors shaping the local people’s
attitude to foreign migration. Comparing obtained results with the materials of previous surveys, the
authors come to conclusion that local communities are still weakly inclined to accept migrants from
neighboring East Asian countries and are not psychologically ready for close interaction with them.
Key words: Foreign migration, Pacific Russia, East Asia, ethno-cultural communication.

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RUSSIAN-CHINESE RELATIONS: PAST AND PRESENT

Image of Russia in 19th Century China and Korea
Sergey Vradiy, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Far-Eastern People Russia
Academy of Science Far-Eastern Branch, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The paper presents commentaries on two unique 19th century Chinese and Korean manuscripts,
both devoted to Russia. The first is Fundamental Information about the Russian State, written by an
eminent state official, scholar Lin Zexu 林則徐 (1785–1850).
One of the main tasks of Lin Zexu’s work was to show the contemporary power of Russia and try to
investigate its mighty origin. As a whole, the manuscript gave a brief description of the Russian
empire divided into regions with inner and outer borders. Further, the manuscript provided general
information about the empire, such as quantity of military forces within each region, climate-specific
features, religious confessions, local crafts, customs of the inhabitants, some historical issues, etc.
The second one is The Map of Russia, assumed to be one of the earliest important and rare documents
related to the early history of Russia-Korea relations. In addition to the map, there are descriptions of
the 19th century Qing China and Russia relations, the disposition of military fortifications, quantity
of Koreans living within the territory, and the border lines. It provides an invaluable record about the
border territories of China-Russia-Korea, esp. in Tumen river adjacent areas. It describes also the
Korean settlements in Primorskiy Russia.
It is worth mentioning that Fundamental Information about the Russian State and The Map of Russia
are among earliest manuscripts published in China and Korea which were devoted to description of
Russia. Their value in study of ideas and images about Russia in Qing China and Korea could not
be overestimated.
Key words: XIX century, Russia-China relations, Russia-Korea relations, Image of Russia,
Primorskiy Russia, Lin Zexu 林則徐 (1785–1850)

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The importance of the Soviet Union in the industrialization North-Eastern China (50-early
60ies. XX сеntury): the experience and evaluation
G. N. Romanova, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Far-Eastern People Russia
Academy of Science Far-Eastern Branch, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article describes the main centers of industrial production, created with the help of the Soviet
Union in the 50’s — early 60-ies of XX century. Marked the decisive role of the USSR in the
transformation of North-East China in the largest industrial center of the country, the implementation
of accelerated development, primarily heavy industry, technical reequipment of existing enterprises
and the creation of new sectors of the economy. The article reveals the shortcomings of building
a model of socialism with a Central distribution system. The versatile assessment of the Soviet-
Chinese economic cooperation of this period in domestic and foreign historiographies is given.
Keywords: Soviet Union, China, North-East China, industrialization, economic assistance of the
USSR to China, heavy industry, economic cooperation, Soviet specialists, modernization, socialism,
historiography.

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EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES: HISTORY AND ECONOMICS

“Sakoku» in Japan’s foreign policy (Self-isolation policy)
Vladimir Kozhevnikov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far
East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
This article analysis of the Japanese concept of «Sakoku» (self-isolation policy of the country) and
its influence on the foreign policy of Japan. It has traditionally been assumed that this policy was
introduced after the uprising of Christians in Simabara and was conducted by the Tokugawa shoguns
for two centuries from 1636 to 1853.
But in the article about the phenomenon of «Sakoku» is considered in a broader historical perspective.
The stages of alternation of periods of closure and opening of the country are highlighted, the reasons
for such alternation are determined and the results of such a shift of periods are shown. This process
has always been associated with the modernization of Japan. Every time the country was closed
from the outside world, it actively «processed» the learned culture of its nearby eastern neighbors,
or Western European countries. With the «discovery» of the country, Japan was once again covered
by a wave of foreign influence, and, despite the prejudices of the ruling authorities and the distrust
of the local population, active borrowing of continental knowledge began and the country underwent
another modernization.
“Sakoku» (“self-isolation») was and remains part of the national identity of the Japanese, which is
reflected in all spheres of life in Japanese society. And it cannot be argued that Japan will never
again resort to such a policy. On the contrary, the tendencies to exclusion from the outside world
are becoming more noticeable (lack of interest in foreign culture and foreign languages, mass
enthusiasm for the Japanese with their own history, unwillingness to travel abroad), and especially
such sentiments stand out among the ordinary population.
Keywords: Japan, «sakoku», self-isolation policy, the stages of «opening» and «closing» of the
country, modernization, foreign influence.

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Trends in the economic development of Northeast China
at the beginning of the XXI century
Ivan Stavrov, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Far-Eastern People Russia Academy
of Science Far-Eastern Branch, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The current economic development of Northeast China still retains its industrial specialization,
characterized by an imbalance in the production structure and relatively large inter-regional and intraregional
imbalances. Among the trends of the last fifteen years, there has been a slight reduction in the
secondary sector and a significant increase in the services sector. Dongbei did not avoid the Chinese
trend towards a slowdown in economic growth, while in the region this trend had a very negative impact
on the most developed province — Liaoning. The agrarian sector received noticeable development,
in the province of Heilongjiang even a peculiar revival of the village took place. The region still holds
leading positions in the production of cereals, meat and dairy products.
The policy of reviving the old industrial bases of Northeast China did not have a strong impact on
the industrial sector, although it partially transformed its organizational forms. At present, the share of
state-owned enterprises in the region is insignificant, but the number of joint-stock companies in which
state capital prevails is large. Since the beginning of the XXI century the importance of heavy industry
declined slightly, but, nevertheless, this sector still dominates the region’s economy.
Keywords: Northeast China, economic development, regional policy, territorial inequality, agriculture,
industry.

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