№19 2018

#19'2018

CONTENTS

Civil War and military Intervention in Russia in regional: Far East.
Ludmila Gallyamova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article emphasizes that the Civil War in Russia was one of the biggest dramas in the history of the nation, one of the most catastrophic events in local and world history of XX century. It is not a surprise that in the year of 100th anniversary of the Civil War start, the scientific interest to these events is particularly strong, especially given the borderline location of the Far East and the intervention into the Civil War on its territory of intervenes from different countries, which inevitably makes the scientific focus on the region more acute. Focusing attention on a short period from the end of 1917 until the end of September of 1918, the author analyses the process of intensifying socio-political situation in the region step by step. The article describes the most important factors that caused deepening of the conflict. On one hand, there was the creation of ‗economic fundament of socialism‘ through the establishment of worker control, nationalization of enterprises, and submission of the local State bank branches to the departments of Soviet power that was done through rather harsh methods by the Far Eastern Soviet Council of People‘s Commissars. Execution of this nationalization caused disbalance of production and financial system. On the other hand, there was resistance from industrialists, trade entrepreneurs and government officials that were supported by the foreign councils, anti-revolution was getting stronger. The article provides arguments to support the conclusion that due to the civil resistance that turned into an armed conflict and the open foreign intervention, the Civil War in the Far East became practically impossible.
Key words: Russia, Far East, Sovietization, anti-revolution, Civil War, foreign intervention.

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Local self-government in the years of revolutionary changes and civil war in the Far East.
Oleg Sergeev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article deals with the problems of reforming and developing the system of local self-government in the East of Russia in the conditions of revolutionary changes and Civil War in the region. It is noted that since 1917 the Far East has received the whole range of the local self-government bodies that were available at that time in the Central regions of the country: zemstvo and reformed urban structures. At the same time, the activities of municipal structures took place in the course of continuous changes in the political map of the Far East, peaceful relations and military clashes with state bodies — Soviet, white governments and the Far Eastern Republic, as well as with the command of the interventionist countries. At some stages of zemstvo and city municipality played a leading role in the management of territories. They were given authority and were considered not only as economic bodies responsible for a narrow range of local needs, but also as an integral part of public administration, including the expansion of their rights in the financial field. In general, local governments in 1917-1922 went from maximum formation and development to almost complete disappearance. There is no doubt that the considered experience of regional municipal history is of both theoretical and practical interest. This is especially important given the current problems of local self-government in the Far East.
Keywords: Far East, municipality, zemstvo, relations between urban structures.

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The food crisis in Vladivostok during the Civil War and the activities of the municipality on the introduction of food cards.
Tatiana Poznyak, Institute of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article is devoted to the struggle of the regional administration and the Vladivostok city self-government with the scarcity and high cost of food and commodities in Vladivostok, 1919-1920. In the period of acute crisis of supply, local self-government was forced to go to extreme measures — to introduce a card product distribution. The City Duma accepted the similar decision every year since 1916. The author examines two cases of injection in Vladivostok rationing of food and goods of prime necessity — in 1919 and 1920. The introduction of food cards was accompanied by problems both times. The first time it was complicated by the long process of transferring the food deal to the city from the Authorized Minister of supply and food, the second — by the desire of the Financial And Economic Council to exclude the non-working population and foreigners from the food supply system by cards, that caused protests of the population and the consular corps. The city Duma softened the radical option by introducing cards of three categories, but this decision caused protests of the population and the consular corps as discriminating against foreigners and residents of the city who were not members of trade unions. Despite the protests and the obvious contradiction to the current City Regulations of 1917, the food card system was preserved. The introduction of the food card caused a huge burden on the city budget — the creation of card departments, distribution points with special staff, many months of work on the production and distribution of cards, the cost of their production and wages of employees.
Keywords: deficit, high cost, food crisis, Civil War, food cards, municipality, trade unions, Vladivostok.

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Indigenous Minorities in the Civil War in the Far East: Features and Reasons for Participation.
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archаeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article discusses the participation of small indigenous peoples in the civil war in the Far East. The features of the coverage of this topic in Soviet historiography are shown, the degree of participation of Aboriginal people in the civil war and their ideological motivation (the struggle for the national interests of Russia, the national liberation struggle) are critically evaluated. The aborigines did not understand the political slogans and for this reason already could not fight for either the "white" or the "red" idea. The motivation for their participation in the events of the civil war was opposition to the excesses of the White Guard detachments, and the main form was partisan struggle. Indigenous resistance organizations played an important role local businessmen, who themselves became victims of white bandit robbery. Once in the epi-center of political confrontation, the aborigines compared the actions of the opposing sides and chose a position that corresponded to their vital interests. Belogvardysky gangsterism did not respond to such interests and therefore the indigenous peoples supported the Soviet power. The "red banditry", which also took place, did not meet their interests. Such a situation, known as the Tungus anti-Soviet uprising, developed in 1924-1925 in Ayano-Okhotsk district. Shows the reasons that lead to the uprising: unsubstantiated repression of local residents suspected of anti-Soviet sentiments, the tax policy of the Okhotsk authorities without taking into account the property situation of the aborigines, ignoring the peculiarities of life and living conditions in the taiga, caused a lot of ridiculous and impracticable instructions. One of the reasons for the uprising is the discontent of the population with the separation of Okhotsk district from Yakutia, with which the Evenks and Evens closely cooperated in matters of trade and supplies with everything necessary for life.
Keywords: indigenous peoples minorities, Civil War in the Far East, Tungus anti-Soviet uprising.

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The Far Eastern Coal Industry in the Context of the Civil War and Intervention in 1918—1922. (on the example of the Suchan state mines).
Aleksey Maklyukov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article deals with the problems of the development of the coal industry in the Far East in the conditions of the Civil War and the intervention of 1918—1922 on the example of the largest regional enterprise - Suchan state mines. The enterprise, established in 1901, supplied all state regional consumers with fuel, primarily the fleet and the army. It was shown that only with the direct participation of the state it was possible to quickly develop the Suchan deposit, organize large-scale coal mining and create the necessary production and transport infrastructure for this. The period of Civil War and intervention turned out to be a difficult time for the Far Eastern coal industry. The war led to an almost complete loss of economic ties between the Far East and the central regions of the country and Siberia, and to the absence of a clear state policy regarding the coal industry. In the context of the transformation of the economic life of the region, the Suchansky mines lost state support and were put on the brink of survival. The war and the intervention brought the enterprise economic ruin, the decline in production, the plight of food, the deterioration of the working and living conditions of the working team, the constant delay in the payment of wages. Nevertheless, the Suchan mines during the years of the Civil War were able to survive more than one change of government, the claims of the interventionists, complete self-sufficiency, while preserving the workforce and the material and technical base. The experience gained in commercial activities organized by the management of the mines in extreme military conditions proved to be effective and in demand in the 1920s.
Key words: coal industry, Suchan mine, intervention, Civil War, the Russian Far East.

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The influence of the excise policy of the Provisional Priamur Government (1921—1922) on the development of the fishing industry in Primorye.
Olga Ustyugova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article deals with the impact of the introduction of the salt excise by the Provisional Priamur Government on the development of the Russian fishing industry of the Far East, which was in competition with the Japanese. By decree No. 101 of February 14, 1922, the Provisional Priamur Government approved the law on the taxation of salt with an excise of 40 kopecks per pood. The Head of the Department of Trade and Industry, by agreement with the Head of the Financial and Economic Department and the State Control, could exempt fisheries of the coast to the northeast of Cape Povorotny from excise. Salt, which was brought directly from abroad or in transit through Vladivostok, for fishing to the south of Cape Povorotny in the Peter the Great Gulf, was not exempt from paying of excise taxes, which caused discontent of the fishermen in this area, as they could not get the salt they needed. The Departments of the Provisional Priamur Government, The Society of Fishermen of the Far East and the Primorsky Chamber of Commerce and Industry carried out consistent work on revising the conditions of the law on salt excise and its abolition in order to protect the Russian fishing industry, but their efforts were not successful. 79
Keywords: Russian Far East, Civil war, Provisional Priamur Government, excise tax, salt, fishing industry.

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Settlement of the Far East in 1918—1919: projects, plans, implementation
Anna Zakolodnaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article on the basis of historical sources, some of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, discusses issues related to the settlement of the Far East in 1917—1919. With the beginning of the War I there was a sharp reduction of migrant flow in the Amursky and Primorsky regions, and in 1917—1918, the relocation here practically stops. At the same time, for political reasons, immigrants to the far Eastern regions retained the right to receive a preferential travel ticket. Revolutions of 1917 pushed to search of new ways of the solution of a colonization question. Projects were created in which the principles of the organization of resettlement business were revised, other options of its construction were offered. The article presents several projects containing proposals for reforming the basics of resettlement policy. Common to them were proposals to divide the entire free land Fund into categories depending on the readiness for immediate use for agricultural purposes. Sites requiring significant financial and time expenditures for land reclamation were in the latter category and were effectively excluded from the resettlement fund. The desire to attract to the Far East an independent, capable without state support to create its own economy migrant also united these projects. At the same time, laws providing the right of preferential arrangement and benefits for certain categories of the population were adopted at the same time. In March 1919, this opportunity was given by the Kolchak government to the soldiers who took part in the struggle for the revival of Russia.
Key words: Russian Far East, resettlement, Amursky region, Primorsky region, Civil war, revolution, 1917.

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The Policy of the Far Eastern Republic in the education system.
Svetlana Beloglazova, Institute of History, Archаeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article investigates one of the poorly studied in the domestic historiography aspects of the history of the Civil war in the Far East - the activities of the Ministry of public education of the far Eastern Republic for the development of the education system in the region. The new archival materials revealed by the author, presented by the orders of the Ministry of education of the DDA in the period from November 19, 1920 to November 14, 1922, are introduced into scientific circulation. In the history of the Ministry, the author identifies two stages, reveals their content and specifics. The process of formation of structure and personnel potential of the Ministry, material aspects of its activity is shown. The complex of measures on reforming the state network of schools, development of personnel potential of educational institutions of the Far East, and legislative registration of school reform is analyzed. The conclusion is made about the identity of the regulatory framework of education used in the territory of the FER and in Soviet Russia, and similar trends in school reform. However, in contrast to the RSFSR, in the Far Eastern Republic, the rule-making in the field of education was determined by the bourgeois-democratic nature of the state, which allowed the existence of a private segment in education and the transfer of educational institutions from the network of state institutions to the local authorities. These facts indicate a deviation from the principles of construction of a unified secondary school. The activities of the Ministry of education of the FER directly depended on the military-political situation in the region and the economic opportunities of the state, which led to the unstable development of the education system. The integration of certain regions of the Far East into a single educational space became possible only after their political unification in the FER, but remained incomplete due to the short life of the Republic and the creation of a "black buffer" in Primorye. The protracted Civil war diverted state resources and led to a financial and economic crisis that had a negative impact on the situation in public education and reduced the positive effect of the Ministry of public education of the FER reorganization.
Key words: education reform, unified school, ministries of public education, Far Eastern Republic (FER)

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The Nature of the Japanese Military Intervention in the Far East 1918—1922.
Boris Kondratenko, Institute of History, Archаeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The characteristic of actions of the Japanese military intervention in the Far East of Russia is provided in article. I have shown also realization of tasks of mastering the region in the years of civil war of 1918-1922. The number and regions of an arrangement of the Japanese troops is given. The nature of actions of military group of interventional forces of Japan is described. Process of expansion of troops on the main strategic directions of the Far East is shown. Japan has landed the landing of one of the first and in difference from other foreign groups had accurate plans for annexation of territory of the Far East. Certain regions of the Far East interested the Japanese intervention group most of all. Japan hasn't seized completely Far East; it controlled certain territories and the strategic enterprises of the Far East. During intervention from the territory the source of raw materials, technical documentation of the large enterprises, the static information collected on places in regional justices was taken out topographic maps of the area were formed, recruitment of local population was made for service as reservists in the Japanese military mission. It and many other factors have made the territory of the Far East vulnerable after the end of war. The shadow of the Japanese presence in the region hasn't disappeared after leaving of intervention forces; it was reformed in external threat of the Far East boundaries of the USSR. Also I continued to exert the impact on process of safety of the Far East of the USSR before the end of World War II. The Soviet Union had to develop the whole system of defense of the Far East borders.
Keywords: Intervention, Japan, USA, geopolitical interests, Far East, military mission, Civil war, allies.

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Unterberger, Ionov and Yakovlev: survival strategy of military engineers of Vladivostok Fortress and their families in time of Russian Civil War
Roman Avilov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
In the article, on a source of family archives, examines the survival strategy of military engineers P.P. Unterberger, N.N. Ionov and E.A. Yakovlev, who participated earlier in building of Vladivostok Fortress, in the Russian Civil War. It was found that their actions in time of Civil War were been determined not only by their political convictions, but also the reasons of family and children security. Moreover, in most cases, despite of soviet conceptions of supremacy of political convictions, the family and children interests were in a first place. It was the reason, which determined the situation, when the offices served in Siberia and the Russian Far East, usually fought in the side of the White Armies. In its turn, the engineer officers, who stood in the territory over the Bolshevik government control, usually found them in the service in Red Army against their political convictions or compromised with their own conscience for to save the life of their family. Some of them supposed, that it is necessary to serve one‘s country any way, and the level of enormity of the government, that the long arm of coincidence is the government de facto, is not so important. The last two trends in many ways determined the influx of the high-level military specialists, including military engineers, of old Russian Empire to the Red Army. This situation let Bolsheviks to create comparatively fast the new relatively battle-seasoned army.
Keywords: Civil War of 1918—1922, Russian Revolution of 1917, Vladivostok Fortress, survival strategy, military engineers.

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Military-Political Aspects of Security of the Far East of the RSFSR in the 1920s.
Galina Tkacheva, Institute of History, Archаeology and Ethnography of Peoples Far East, FEB RAS Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article analyzes the military-political components of the security of the Far East of the USSR. It was revealed that the strengthening of security included, on the one hand, measures aimed at maintaining military formations in combat readiness, on the other - the creation of a military-industrial complex, which allows forming strategic reserves of material values of state and mobilization reserves and territorial boundaries to work in wartime conditions. In the 1920s. views on the nature of the future war determined the direction of military construction, the ratio of the types of troops, methods of conducting military operations. The political leadership of the Soviet state sought to maintain a stable military-strategic situation in the Far East, when the Red Army was in a state of reduction in the number of military units and administrative apparatus, without detailed substantiation of the military doctrine in a downturn of the world revolutionary movement and socio-economic stabilization in Western Europe. The formation of parts of the Red Army and its naval component reflected the level of development of the Far Eastern Territory, which did not have sufficient forces and means to implement defense plans. In determining the number of armed formations and their equipment on the eastern borders, the specifics of the geopolitical space, the remoteness of military units and the low probability of intra- and interregional regrouping of troops with a huge length of sea and land borders were taken into account. Military defense measures were carried out on the basis of an active defense strategy, which assumed the defeat of the enemy in the event of the start of aggressive actions.
Keywords: Civil War of 1918—1922, the Far East, security, military policy, the Red Army.

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