№20 2018

#20'2018

CONTENTS

N.N. Kradin, N.A. Kluyev. Preface

Janna Vasilyevna Andreyeva: 60 years in Far Eastern Archaeology
N.A. Kluyev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
The paper describes creative development of noted Far-Eastern archaeologist — J.V. Andreyeva. J.V. Andreyeva was one of leading researchers in the field of archaeology of primitive society of Primorye Region in the second half of XX — beginning of XXI. Dozens of new objects of archaeological heritage were found by her, she made excavation of such well-known archaeological sites as Siniye Skaly, Malaya Podushechka, Chapayevo, Ustinovka-1, Anuchino-1 at al. J.V. Andreyeva was the first specialist in Primorye, who had defended doctoral degree dissertation on archaeology. Being an outstanding organizer of academic science in the region, she has left a huge scientific heritage. In her works she concerned wide range of actual problems starting from the question of periodization of archaeological sites ending with distinguishing new cultures in Iron Age.
Key words: history of archaeology of Primorye Region, J.V. Andreyeva, scientific heritage.

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Some results of archaeological research on the south slope of siniye skaly site (pit 1 of 1962 and pit 3 of 1965)
J.V. Andreyeva,
Ya.E. Piskareva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
Siniye Skaly — is most noted archaeological site of North-Eastern Primorye, it contains cultural deposits of various epochs from Neolithic up to Middle Ages. It was researched for 15 field seasons since 1958 till 1984 under the direction of J.V. Andreyeva.
The paper presents results of analysis of materials obtained in process of research of cavities situated in lower part of the south slope of Siniye Skaly site. Structures situated here differ considerably by size and construction. Materials obtained as a result of excavation here demonstrate the whole range of cultural deposits of Siniye Skaly site: from Neolithic up to Middle Ages. Judging by the degree of preservation of the material and its’ quantity, dwellings and household pit unearthed in 1965 date back to Early Iron Age. Artifacts of other epochs appeared here as a result of slipping of soil from the upper part of the slope. Another situation is in the excavation pit of 1962. Dwellings of Early Iron Age also could be situated here, however, cultural deposit in this part of the site probably was repeatedly disturbed at first by “olgintsy” (people of Olginskaya culture) who had built their dwelling in north-east part of the pit, and then by other population that came to the site in Medieval Epoch.
Assortment of medieval artifacts and their location allow to suppose that there could be a medieval burial which had some analogies with Pokrovskaya culture.
Key words: Primorye, Siniye Skaly site, multilayered site, Early Iron Age, Medieval Epoch, medieval burial ground.

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Chronology and spatial distribution of sites of Zaisanovskaya cultural tradition in Primorye region in context of changes of natural conditions
Yu.E. Vostretsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper suggests evolutional view at the settlement of early farmers — people of Zaisanovskaya cultural traditionin the territory of Primorye Region as multiple line process. A working scheme of settlement of different cultural groups of early farmers in connection with changes of natural conditions in continental and maritime areas is suggested for discussion.
Key words: Early farmers, Zaisanovskaya cultural tradition, settlement system, cultural adaptation, Primorye Region, East Asia.

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Using of plants by population of Primorye region in middle neolithic epoch according to archaeobotanical data
E.A. Sergusheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper presents results of research of seeds and fruits of plants from sites of middle Neolithic Epoch in Primorye Region. Archaebotanic materials were collected from 7 sites of Rudninskaya (7500—6000 BP) and Boisman (7000—6000 ВР) archaeological cultures. In Rudnaya Pristan and Chyortovy Vorota sites macro remains of plants were obtained by method of visual collection in the process of excavation, in other 5 sites — Novotroitskoye-2, Dvorianka-1, Risovoye-4, Boismana-2 and Boyarin-6 — by method of water flotation. Available materials are not numerous, they show low density of seeds and fruits of plants in Middle Neolithic deposits. However, this data allows reconstructing some elements wild food plant gathering. Nutshells (hazel, Manchurian nut) are found in deposits most often. In addition there are findings of acorns, seeds of hawthorn, Amur vine. Isolated findings of caryopsis of cultivated millet in two sites of Rudninskaya culture (Dvorianka-1 and Risovoye-4) apparently are not related with middle Neolithic Epoch and must belong to later layers of these sites.
Key words: Primorye Region, middle Neolithic Epoch, archaeobotanic materials, water flotation method, gathering of wild plants.

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Development of the procedure of research of ancient starch (by materials of Klerk-5 site, Primorye region)
I.E. Pantyukhina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

This work is a sample of researching procedure used for analysis of fossil starch. Main stages of examination of microscopic remains on the surface of ancient tools are shown. With this method of analysis we have managed to identify several species of cultivated cereals and thus to establish the preservation of agricultural tradition at first farmers of Zaisanovskaya culture tradition after migration of their groups from continental part of Primorye to the coastal area in period of 4800—4500 years ago.
Key words: archaeology of microscopic remains, method of analysis of ancient starch, first farmers of Zaisanovskaya culture tradition.

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Early complexes of Sinelnikovo-1 ancient town
N.A. Dorofeyeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
I.Yu. Sleptsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper presents an analysis of early (pre-medieval) cultural and chronological complexes of Sinelnikovo-1 ancient town. For the purpose of it types of implements significant in cultural aspect were distinguished in the collection of the sit, and basing on it an attribution of noncontemporaneous complexes has been done. As a result of this research five early stages of settlement of this site have been distinguished. Three of these stages are Neolithic — in periods of early, advanced and late Neolithic Epoch, two other are complexes of Bronze Age and Paleometal Epoch. A relation of these complexes with partially preserved dwelling constructions was established basing on planigraphic and stratigraphic analyses. In addition unusual complex of implements (arrowheads, adzes) possibly of ritual nature has been distinguished.
Key words: Primorye Region, Sinelnikovo-1 ancient town, stone implements, Neolithic Epoch, Shekliayevskaya culture, Zaisanovskaya culture, Paleometal Epoch.

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Phusunskaya culture in Primorye
E.V. Sidorenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper suggests a variant of solution of historiography debates on Margaritovskaya culture of transitional from Neolithic to Palaeometal period in Primorye Region that lasted for many years. The author has distinguished and described stages of study of this culture, investigated problems of historiography, revised sources with description of each site. Consequently, it turns out that Margaritovskaya culture in its initial interpretation as combination of Phusunskiy and Prikhankaiskiy (Zaisanovskiy) components in one complex cannot be distinguished on basis of available sources. Therefore the author suggests to keep it in historiography reserve till reliable complexes appear. A group of sites with Phusunskiy component can be clearly defined basing on materials of intact complexes. The author suggests uniting them into new archaeological culture (Phusunskaya culture).
Key words: Phusunskaya culture, Margaritovskaya culture, Zaisanovskaya culture, Neolithic Epoch, Palaeometal, Primorye Region, archaeological systematization, historiography, source study.

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Ceramics of paleometal epoch from Risovoye-4 site in Primorye region
I.V. Gridasova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

Materials of excavation of multilayered settlement Risovoye-4in central part of Primorye Region are analyzed in this paper. An analysis of ceramic collection of Paleometal Epoch from this site allowed distinguishing of complexes similar to two different cultures: Lidovskaya and Sinegaiskaya. Combination of materials of these two cultures in one site is of big interest in context of suggested contacts of their representatives.
Key words: Primorye Region, Paleometal Epoch, Risovoye-4 settlement, Sinegaiskaya archaeological culture, Lidovskaya archaeological culture.

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Tiles of Tereljin-Durvuljin walled town, Mongolia (basing on materials of excavation in 2015)
A.L. Ivliev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
N.N. Kradin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
S.A. Vasiutin, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia

The paper presents results of research of roof tiles unearthed in Hunnu walled town Tereljin-Durvuljin in Mungunmort Sum of Central Aimag of Mongolia in 2015. A description of main kinds of tiles — flat (lower) tile, convex (upper) tile and discs of frontal convex tile is given. Six variants of decoration of discsare distinguished. Authors have revealed technological features of these tiles’ production. Through comparison with materials of sites of VIII c. BCE — III c. AD in China and other Hunnu towns in Mongolia they consider that it is possible to date tiles of Tereljin-Durvuljin back to III—I cc. BCE.
Key words: Tereljin-Durvuljin walled town, archaeology of Hunnu, Mongolia, tiles.

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On conception of medieval epoch of the island world of Far East
A.A. Vasilevskiy, Sakhalin State University, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia

The paper considers problems of study of Medieval Epoch in the island area of Far East (Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, Hokkaido). Basing on results of latest archaeological researches, ethnographic data and written sources, using world-systems analysis the author suggests new vision of historical events in the area in the second half of 1st and first half — middle of 2nd millennium AD different from ones existed earlier. The author distinguishes periods of early (VII—X cc.), advanced (XI—XIII cc.) and late (XIV—XVII cc.) Medieval Epoch. The author makes description of archaeological cultures existed on the islands and written sources’ data about historical events in the island world of Far East in each of these periods.
Key words: Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, Medieval Epoch, Okhotskaya culture, ainu.

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Agriculture and trades in economy of Bohai (basing on materials of sites of Russian Primory region)
E.I. Gelman, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

Most important components of Bohai economy — agriculture and animal husbandry, domestic crafts — are considered in this paper through complex research of archaeological materials. All these materials are from sites situated in Russian Primorye Region. Agroclimatological resources of the region, implements, cultivated plants and domestic animals being a basis of Bohais’ nourishment are described. A significance of hunting, fishing, sea and river gathering along with gathering and use of wild edible plants for economy of Bohai state (698—926) has been estimated.
Key words: Bohai state (698—926), paleoeconomy, agriculture, animal husbandry, domestic crafts.

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Dongdan state and archaeology of Primorye territory
A.L. Ivliev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper presents a study of possibility of attribution of medieval sites in Primorye Territory to Dongdan state. Dongdanguo was a new name of Bohai conquered and ruled by Kitans since 926. Basing on historical records the author shows that in 930 Dongdan state was transferred by Kitans to the walley of Liaohe River and after that controlled rather small area around modern Liaoyang city which became East Capitil of Liao in 938. After transfer Dongdan had lost control over original territory of Bohai where other states like Ding’an or wure tribe appeared. In XI — beginning of XII centuries Jurchen tribes controlled lands to east from Sungari (Songhua) River and Kitans did not go beyond Ningjiangzhou town commissioning settling matters there to Jurchen chieftains. Thus historical data does not allow to attribute sites of central and east parts of Primorye Territory to Dongdan state. Also archaeological data, particularly results of archaeological excavations of Koksharovka-1 walled town in the valley of Ussuri River demonstrate that in X c. its inhabitants were not politically, economically or culturally tied with Dongdan state or with province of East Capital of Liao but isolated from them.
Key words: Bohai state, Dongdan state, Kitans, Liao Empire, archaeological sites of X—XI cc in central and north-eastern parts of Primorye Territory of Russia.

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Playing chips of Kraskinskoye walled town
E.V. Astashenkova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia
E.I. Gelman, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

Such mass findings as playing chips are analyzed in this paper. These artifacts are well-known in Bohai sites and Kraskinskoye walled town is not an exception. Quite the contrary, many years of research of the medieval town allowed to get a considerable collection of chips and to have an idea about leisure-time of its inhabitants. The authors of the paper make detailed description of these artifacts paying attention to their color, material, degree and quality of processing.
Questions of chips’ location are also considered: in which objects of the site their highest concentration is observed, how the quantity of these artifacts varies from one construction horizon to another. The paper also quotes East Asian games which had such chips as an integral component. Authors make a conclusion that a game of “mill” type known in Korean historiography as “gonu” was spread among Bohai population. The popularity of this game grew gradually. It is testified by finding of the game board drawn on a stone slab in this ancient town.
Key words: south of the Russian Far East, Bohai state (698—926), Kraskinskoye walled town, playing chips, tile, walls of vessels, items of games, game board.

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Late complex of Valentin-Peresheyek site in Primorye region
A.V. Garkovik, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

Valentin-peresheyek is a multilayered site, its’ cultural deposits contain materials of three cultural and chronological periods. Main, most numerous complex is Neolithic, it relates to lower part of cultural deposits (black sand and grayish-brown loam). Remains of medieval settlement consisted supposedly of four structures were in the upper part of cultural deposits — gray sand. Two of these structures have preserved better and give an idea about their construction. They were surface constructions with two channeled L-shaped kang (heating system) covered with flat pebbles and built on clay foundation. Such structure allows supposing that they were dwellings. They have analogies among dwellings of Bohai and Jurchen periods. Traces of metallurgical production were found in cultural layer. They were represented by pieces of ore, slag, spittings and also small fragments of iron artifacts, crucibles and their fragments. Other not numerous archaeological artifacts — wheel-made ceramics, three-bladed arrowhead and glass beads have analogies in Bohai sites.
Unearthed archaeological material indicates certain economical orientation of the population of the late period of this settlement. Probably, this settlement specialized in smelting iron. Analogies to its dwellings and stratigraphy of this complex indicate its date coincident with Bohai state of VIII—X cc.
Key words: Primorye Region, Valentin-peresheyek site, early medieval complex, Bohai state, iron smelting.

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Ceramic material of Yekaterinovskoye walled town
T.A. Vasilyeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

The paper presents ceramic material of Yekaterinovskoye ancient town — one of Jurchen towns of Primorye situated in Partizanskiy district. The author gives description of the site, makes classification of ceramic ware found in this walled town, quotes analogies with vessels from other Jurchen sites in Primorye and produces arguments to prove standardization of Jurchens’ pottery production. There is data about local pottery production. Yekaterinovskoye walled town is one of few sites where hand-made ceramic ware was found. An assortment of wares differs in different objects of the site. The level of pottery production in Yekaterinovskoye walled town was high enough and corresponded to traditions and standards specific for the sites of Jurchen Epoch in Primorye Region.
Key words: Primorye Region, Yekaterinovskoye walled town, Jurchen, ceramic material, wheel-made ware, hand-made ware.

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