№21 2018

#21'2018

CONTENTS

Yuri Latushko, Galina Ermak. Introduction

Classification and etymology of Sakhalin Orok ethnonyms in Russian scientific literature
Anatoliy Starcev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS. Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
According to the common classification, the ethnic names of the Sakhalin Oroks are divided into three groups: 1) Olcha (Ol`cha, Ol`chi), Ulcha (Ul`cha, Ul`chi); 2) Uilta (Uil`ta), Ulta (Ul`ta), Ujlta (Ujl`ta); 3) Oroks, Orochs, Orochyona (Orochena, Orochona). The first group of ethnonyms was not definitely fixed for them, because the terms of an Olcha (Ol`cha) and Ulcha (Ul`cha) were combined into one name Ul`chi, by which was called not Oroki, but one of the Amur Nani groups - modern Ul`chi. The second group of names was declared as a different phonetic sounds of one term, which was fixed in scientific literature in the form of Ujl`ta. Modern ethnographers mistakenly consider that primordial self-name Oroki was formed from the Evenki's word Uil – whirlpool. The third group of ethnonyms is considered introduced from languages of other peoples. The name Orok belongs to language of Ainu, and terms Orochs and Orochyona (Orochena, Orochona) – the Russian words. The analysis of all ethnonyms showed that among three groups of names the true self-name is only Orochyoni, and all other, except an ekzonim Oroki, are territorial names of ethnic groups of Sakhalin Oroks.
Keywords: classification, culture, name, self-name, Orok, Olcha, Ulcha, Uilta, Ulta, Uilta, Ujl`ta, Orocheny.

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A woman "between peace and conflict" among the indigenous peoples of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin in the late XIX - early XX centuries.
Elena Fadeeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
At all times, among all the peoples of the world, a woman performed in different guises. On the one hand, she is the mother, the giver of life, on the other, the ―apple of discord‖ not only between individual males, but also entire nations and even states. The purpose of this article is to show how the indigenous ethnic groups of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin (Udege, Nanai, Orochi, Ulchi, Nivkhi, Negidals, Oroki) imagined the role of women and relatives on the maternal side in the processes of resolving various conflicts (between ethnic and within kin and family groups). The analysis of sources and literature showed that the role of women in matters of conflict and peacemaking was not straightforward. On the one hand, she herself often became the cause of inter-clan proceedings, especially in cases of voluntary participation in her own kidnapping. In addition, there were known examples of the unsightly role of some women, provoking conflicts between representatives of different genders. But, on the other hand, the peacemaking and protective role of women in preventing bloody conflicts between their fathers, brothers and husbands was much more pronounced. Finally, women often acted as a means of paying the fine to the injured party.
Keywords: the peoples of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin Island, women status, family and kin groups conflicts, peacemaking, blood feud.

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Russian Transbaikalian Cossacks in Manchurian Triling: translation of traditions of material culture.
Julia Argudyaeva, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of The Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article highlights the impact of the Civil War in Russia and its consequences on the emigration and life of the Russian Cossacks of Transbaikalia in Manchuria, their translation of the Russian cultural heritage to the Manchurian lands. The problems of adapting Transbaikalian Cossacks to local conditions, their contribution to the preservation and development of Russian culture in the host country are considered. The degree of preservation in Manchuria of Russian national traditions in material culture is analyzed - the estate complex, housing, food, clothing, and means of transportation. Attention is paid to the characterization of the mutual influence of the culture of Russian and indigenous peoples of the northeast of China in the field of material culture.
Keywords: Russians, Cossacks, Transbaikalia, Manchuria, traditions, translation of Russian heritage, material culture, intercultural communication.

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Russian visitors in New Zealand before 1917 year: cultural contacts.
Elena Rudnikova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
Despite of the great distance between Russia and New Zealand, the two peoples have got great interest in each other's history and culture from early time. This study provides an objective picture of Russia's cultural presence in the remote south-pacific islands over a century – from 1820 year till the WWI beginning. During this period, representatives of culture and public figures with Russian roots visited New Zealand for various purposes. The article deals with the chronological order of cultural visits of Russians. The author makes an attempt to periodize these events. The most significant ones for cultural relations between the two countries are characterized. The research vector is aimed at studying the Russian interest in New Zealand. The main sources of the research are the New Zealand newspaper chronicles of that time and the preserved memories of the Russians themselves. Involved materials and conclusions of foreign studies.
Key words: Russia-New Zealand relations, cultural contacts, Russians in New Zealand.

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Ethno-regional aspects of formation of Ukrainian and Byelorussian population in Primorye region.
Irina Strel’tsova, Senior lab assistant, Department of Ethnography, Ethnology and Anthropology, Research Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article illuminates ethno-regional aspects of formation of Ukrainian and Byelorussian population in Primorye Region in the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries. The author analyses the migration flows as well as highlights the historical and cultural factors which influence the formation of Ukrainian and Byelorussian population in the region.
Key words: Primorye region, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, migration, ethno-regional aspect.

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Witchcraft from the point of view of the Christian tradition.
Galina Popovkina. The article analyzes the attitude to the phenomenon of witchcraft in Christianity and the traditional culture of the Slavs. Consider the lives of saints, field materials of the author, published materials. It is found out that folk culture divides magic into "black" (malicious) and "white". Christianity does not make this distinction and regards witchcraft as an appeal to fallen spirits, which is fraught with the infusion of evil spirits into man. The idea of the reality of witchcraft is reflected in the lives of some Christian saints. The means of protection from magical influence (the righteous Christian life, participation in the Sacraments, prayers) are also offered. It is revealed that there is a difference in approaches to the issue of witchcraft in Orthodoxy and Catholicism. Some Orthodox priests consider witchcraft to be fiction and superstition. Others, on the other hand, see the interconnection of witchcraft and obsession, taking on the responsibility of committing bans to demons ("proofreaders"). In Orthodoxy, the skill of exorcism is a custom that is not fixed in the form of church normative acts, but requires spiritual preparedness from the priest who decided to become an exorcist. In Catholicism, on the contrary, representations are more systematized both about witchcraft, and about ways to combat its consequences, there are regulated ways of preparing exorcist priests and communicating them with each other. Christianity sees the danger of the influence of evil spirits on a person in the interest of the entertainment industry in the issues of occultism and magic, but calls attention to the decision on the need for the exorcist to intervene, not to confuse the cases of mental disorders with obsession.
Keywords: magic, witchcraft, Orthodoxy, Catholicism, obsession, "readings", exorcism.

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Indigenous Peoples and the State in the Conditions of the Post-Soviet Transformation.
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
The article discusses the relationship between the state and indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East in the first half of the 2000s. The main attention is paid to the activities of the State Committee for Social and Economic Development of the North (Goskom-north), which carried out state regulation in the field of social and economic policy in the Far North, creating the necessary conditions for the development of the economy and culture of the small peoples of the North. Showing the place of the State Committee in the executive the power of the Russian Federation, the peculiarities of its relations with other federal structures, the role in shaping the ideology and mechanisms for implementing state policy on indigenous peoples at the most difficult time for them, and in implementing measures to protect their rights and interests. The activity of the State Committee for the Development and Implementation of Federal Target Programs for the Economic and Social Development of Indigenous Peoples has been analyzed. small number of people, the reasons for their poor efficiency, the participation of the Goskom-north in the formation of partnerships between the state and indigenous small-numbered peoples, the development of legislation on indigenous peoples. The article introduces for the first time the scientific materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. 100
Key words: indigenous small peoples, Goskomsever in the system of executive power, partnership between the state and indigenous peoples, legislation on indigenous peoples.

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Social Structure and Modus Vivendi of Commander Isles Society
Yuri Latushko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article discusses the relationship of habitat with lifestyle on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The author points to two historical models of island development - as the peripheral part of a larger mainland system and as a relatively autonomous and highly specialized system with an island form of existence in the narrow sense. Both of these models are only ideal types, designed to scale the degree of physical and cultural isolation of island territories. At different times (no later than the Neolithic), it could both mutually exclude each other and supplement each other. The so-called revival of the traditional lifestyle on the Commander Islands in the 1990s, in fact, it was a way of survival, which had previously been well tested by marine cultures of the Pacific region on oceanic islands almost everywhere. An article written, including on the basis of the author's field materials, analyzes the transformation of the lifestyle of a commander’s society throughout predominantly post-Soviet times. A description of the ecology of Bering Island, the specifics of the economy and social relations is given.
Keywords: Pacific Ocean, Commander Islands, Bering Island, lifestyle, habitat, culture, adaptation.

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