Topics in the Study of Ethnology and Anthropology of Ainu

Vladimir V. Podmaskin

Institute оf History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Geographical Terms of the Ainu as Historical and Ethnographic Source

The article deals with the geographical vocabulary of the Kuril and Sakhalin Ainu. Preference is given to a detailed description of the content of individual geographical terms, their comparative analysis with the indication of areas and giving examples of many place names formed with the participation of Ainu words. Folk geographical terminology naturally and actively participated in the formation of proper names — place names. They helped the islanders to Orient themselves, to master the territory faster, to lead a purposeful way of life. They preserved archaic words, allowing to judge the history of the language, historical and cultural relations, beliefs, etc. Semantic analysis of geographical terms showed the developed composition of the appellative vocabulary. The largest is the group of geographical terms that denote almost all kinds of geographical objects of the island world. They are installed mainly in the microtoponyms reflect the mountainous terrain, rough or protruding piece of terrain, various obstacles and connected with the business activities of marine mammal hunters and fishermen. Among them there is a semantic shift of kinship, folklore, religious and cult concepts. For the Ainu the world is linear, the value is not the surface of the earth, and the route of migration is along the trail, along a river valley, the waterfront, etc. Formed ideas about when certain people with certain parts of the earth. The translation of many geographical terms defined the meaning of the Ainu.

Keywords: Ainu, geographical terms, place names, vocabulary, semantics, etymology, southern Sakhalin, Kuril Islands.

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Nikita L. Svistov

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Overview of the Ainu Collections of Russian Museums

The article presents an overview of the collections in the museums of Russia belonging to the Ainu of Sakhalin Island, Hokkaido Island and the Kuril Islands. In total, one of the world’s largest collections of exhibits is collected in Russian museums. Most of them were received before 1947, that is, before the eviction of the Ainu from Sakhalin Island. The special significance of these collections for the global scientific and museum community is noted. The article was compiled using published catalogs of the Russian Museum of Ethnography and the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, created jointly with representatives of the Japanese scientific community as part of the Ainu heritage study program in Russian museums. Was also used Catalog Collection “Ainy”, published the Khabarovsk local history museum named Grodekova and information provided in State Catalog of the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation. The article presents the history of the formation of collections in various museums (if information is available): the names of objects that transferred objects to the museum, the years and places of collection of exhibits, as well as their number are indicated. When possible, the uniqueness of the collections stored in a particular museum is noted. At the end of the article, a generalized analysis of stock collections is given, which gives an idea of the nature and number of different groups of exhibits.

Keywords: Ainu, museum collections, ethnography, Sakhalin Island, Hokkaido Island, Kuril Islands.

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Marina V. Osipova

Faculty of Philology, Translation Studies and Cross-Cultural Communication of the Pedagogical Institute, Pacific State University, Khabarovsk, Russia.

The Dance as a Ethnomarkering Element of the Ainu Spiritual Cultural

The article deals with the problem of the Ainu folk dance existence as an integral part of spiritual culture of the people from the Neolithic age to the present. This idea can be confirmed by the petroglyphs of dancing anthropomorphic figures in the Fugoppe cave, Hokkaido. The records of native and foreign scientists of the XVIII—XX centuries give the idea of dance practices of the Ainu. The Ainu folk dance was closely related to the production activities, such as fishing, hunting and gathering of the inhabitants of the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin and Hokkaido. These activities served as the main themes of the folk dance. The Ainu dances are characterized by their ritual nature, reflexivity, syncretism, synthetism, multifunctionality, anonymity, conservatism and collectivism in which the bodily-plastic beginning prevailsover the musical accompaniment. It is a kind of socio-cultural code where certain socio-cultural functions (socially transformative, informational-communicative, suggestive, ethical, aesthetic and hedonistic) play a large role. The attempt topresent a classification of Ainu dances of three Ainu ethnic groups is undertaken.

Keywords: the Ainu, folk dance, game dance, rite, ritual socio-cultural code, classification.

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Roman V. Gvozdev

Roman A. Gritskevich

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Inter-Ethnic Contacts of the Ainu Period XVII—XIX Centuries

The authors attempt to trace the main directions of inter-ethnic contacts of the Ainu in the period of XVII—XIX centuries as a source base of the work involved the testimonies of the pioneers, the explorers of the Russian Far East and adjacent territories, as well as materials of domestic and foreign authors (published in Russian). As a special condition for inter-ethnic contacts, the remoteness of the Ainu places of residence from the densely populated and economically more developed regions of the neighboring large States should be noted first of all. A large role was played by the low density of the population settled in quite large areas. The current economy and economic methods largely influenced the social structure, which left an imprint on the development of trade relations in the region and the General nature of contacts. It is important to note the natural (as opposed to monetary) exchange (goods for goods) as a fundamental principle of trade in the Ainu. Another important feature was the fact that such large States as Japan and China, although present in the region, but their interests are not directly faced (Chinese influence extended to the Northern territory of the island of Sakhalin, and the Japanese in its southern part, the Kuriles and Hokkaido). Accordingly, both States did not have a zone of direct contacts here, and in the absence of clear boundaries, relatively free movement of entire ethnic groups was possible, not to mention the fact that this fact contributed to the development of trade relations. Trade developed in two main, non-overlapping directions. The first and priority direction was trade with Japan and was conducted mainly through outlets on Hokkaido and South Sakhalin. The second direction was connected with Manchu China. The trade route ran along the West coast to the North of Sakhalin, and then through the mouth of the Amur river, where fairs were traditionally held. Settlements in places of trade were permanent and fortified points.

Keywords: Ainu, ethno-cultural contacts, trade, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Russia, China, Japan, Tungus-Manchu.

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Ekaterina S. Chekunkova

Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia.

The Current State of the Ainu People the New Phase of Japan’s Ethnic Minority Policy

The article is devoted to the policy of the Japanese government towards the Ainu, the Indigenous ethnic group of Japan, in the beginning of the XXI century. For a considerable period of time, issues concerning the Ainu people in Japan have not been given an appropriate attention. However, it could be observed that substantial changes have occurred over the past few decades in the areas of ethnic minority policy formulation in Japan. At the same time, the status of the Ainu people in Japanese society has also been transformed. On February 2019 the Cabinet of Japan proposed a bill concerning the Ainu to the Diet. It initiated a discussion on the new law towards the Ainu people, highlighting once again the significance of the subject matter. The author analysis the policy measures of Japanese and local government towards the Ainu, reviews activities of the Ainu organizations and the opinion of the Ainu toward Japan’s ethnic minority policy implementation.

Keywords: Japan, Hokkaido, ethnic policy, the Ainu, indigenous population, rights of indigenous peoples.

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The Culture under Conditions of Social Transformations

Tatyana V. Krayushkina

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

The Functioning of Children’s Images in the Song Folklore of Siberia and the Far East of Russia during the Civil War

The article analyzes the functioning of children’s images on the material of Russian song folklore of the Civil War period, recorded in Siberia and the Far East in 1917—1969. The goal is to trace some parallels with the images of children used in traditional genres of folklore, and to identify the dynamics of their development in the songs of the studied period. The song fund, where children’s images are found, made up songs composed on the basis of the author’s works, as well as those in which the author’s texts are obvious, but the names of their creators have been lost. The songs are divided into conditionally children’s folklore, which includes lullabies, performing a satirical propaganda function, and adult oral folk art. The article draws conclusions about partially modified in comparison with traditional ideas about children. The songs reveal a clear division into children of the poor and the rich with different attitudes towards them. The motifs that are familiar to traditional folklore, reflecting the basic elements of the psychology of the Russian mentality, are directed towards solving new problems dictated by modern living conditions. The portrait features of a group of children are mostly pessimistic. Individual children’s images are more optimistic.

Keywords: children’s images, images of boys, images of girls, children’s folklore, song folklore, folklore of the Civil War, folklore of the Far East.

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Lidiya E. Fetisova

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Interaction of Folklore Traditions of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Far East and Northern-East China: Conflict of Values

Cultural interaction of indigenous population of the Russian Far East and North-East China was shown on their narrative folklore. With reference of traditional mythology, the inclusion the Manchu supreme deity Enduri / Enduli into cosmogony of Tungus-speaking peoples was considered with a rethinking of the polytheistic worldview in favor of the hierarchy of gods with space leader. In the middle world of three-dimensional space, as before, the domination of spirit-patrons of nature was still preserved but now to designate them the Manchu term was also used — ede / edeni / egehe. Afterwards this word acquired additional meaning — “Lord”, “the supreme deity”. The southern component of ethnogenesis of the Tungus-Manchu is most noticeable in the oral traditions of the Nanai, but borrowing from the Manchu-Chinese fairy tales (siokhor / sokhor / sokhory / sakhury) are found among all indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East. Analysis of these texts showed that their content was subject to rethinking in accordance with moral standards of the tribal system. This indicates a conflict of values between a homogenous and socially differentiated society.

Keywords: Tungus-Manchu folklore, Russian Far East, Northeastern China, interaction, borrowing.

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Elena O. Kirillova

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Religious and Ceremonial Beliefs and Rituals of Koreans in the Far Eastern Story by the Russian-Polish Writer S.-M. Salinsky “Birds come back to dreams”

The article continues the author’s research of literary works belonging to the Russian-Polish writer S.-M. Salinsky (1902, Kraskino, Khasansky district, Primorsky Krai, the Russian Empire — 1969, Warsaw, Poland), who is quite unknown in Russia. The research object is S.-M. Salinsky’s autobiographical story “Birds come back to dreams” (Vladivostok, 2015), which is based on the Far Eastern material. The story was published in 1964. For the first time into Russian the story was translated in Vladivostok in 2015. S.-M. Salinsky actively addresses conventional oral folklore (fairy tales, myths and legends) of the foreign population of South Ussuri Krai at the end of XIX — the first quarter of the XX centuries as well as different Far Eastern ethnoses such as Koreans, Chinese, Udege and Tazy, living in that territory at the time. The story is of interest in terms of studying problems of cross-cultural interactions and literary realization of foreign culture contacts caused by cohabitation of different ethnoses in the territory of the Pacific Russia. The leading basis of the story is the Far Eastern mythopoetics in the context of frontier culture and mentality. The writer pays special attention to economic household, sacral views, system of mythopoetic images, symbols, behavioral motives of the local Korean population. The emphasis is placed on spiritual and religious beliefs, and also mythosacral and ceremonial acts of Koreans. The theme of death and the rituals connected with it are the keynote motif in the work. The description of the Korean funeral ceremony, namely, secondary burial or human remains transfer is central in the story.

Keywords: S.-M. Salinsky, “Birds come back to dreams”, religious and ceremonial beliefs and rituals of Koreans, Korean myths and rituals, Koreans in South Ussuri Krai at the end of XIX — the first quarter of the XX centuries, Far Eastern literature.

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Elena S. Volkova

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Transformation of the Social Group of Cultural Figures in the Far East of Russia in the Post-Soviet Period (on the Example of Writers)

The article analyzes impact of radical political reforms in the 1990s on the life of Russian Far Eastern writers (including everyday structures and professional (corporate) institutions), as well as on the literature sphere in whole. It is proved that commercialization of culture in the end of the 20th century in Russia caused the decrease of book-publishing level, blurred standards of high-quality fiction literature and resulted in disintegration of common cultural space and declining readership as well. The article discusses the survival practice used by Far Eastern writers in conditions of the transition period. Author fixes significant outflow of writers both to other regions of Russia and abroad. It is noticed that the role of creative unions in the literary process decreased despite increasing their number and number of their members as well. Author traces the transformation of writer’s social status and concludes that in the post-Soviet reality the prestige of the profession has fallen down. Eventually writing ceases to be a profession in the full sense of the word turning into a hobby with non-guaranteed income. At the same time author emphasizes that despite the above processes literary creation is a essential characteristic which brings writers together into a sustainable community and forms a certain subculture.

Keywords: Russian Far East, 1990s, post-Soviet period, social status of the writer, survival practices, unions of writers, common cultural space, neotribalism.

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Elena V. Rudnikova

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

“Russian Jack” in the New Zealand History: Immigrants — “Swagmen” from Russian Empire

The article deals with one of the episodes of pre-revolutionary emigration from the Russian Empire to New Zealand. The author’s focus is on immigrants from Russia who, for various reasons, did not have a permanent habitat and wandered around New Zealand in search of casual earnings. Around the end of the 1870s, after the end of the gold rush, the figure of a vagabond walking along New Zealand’s roads with a knapsack behind his back became a regular part of the surrounding landscape for a long time. From the name of this knapsack or “swag” in which there were personal belongings and simple everyday belongings of such people, there was their collective name “man with a swag” — “swagger” or “swagman”. The biography of perhaps the most famous and one of the most recent swaggers in the country, a Russian émigré named Barrett / Ivan Krumen, nicknamed “Russian Jack”, is used as a reference material for the conclusions. Also attracted eyewitness accounts of the time. Due to the fact that such a name for vagrants was widespread in neighboring Australia, the article compares Australian and New Zealand versions of the story about “Russian Jack”. It is concluded that the New Zealand version is also based on real events, but it is younger than the Australian one. In addition, in some details it is secondary and specific, especially in the choice of the central character.

Keywords: Russians in New Zealand, “Russian Jack”, Barrett Cruman, swagman, swagger.

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Julia V. Argudyaeva

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

From Russia to the Manchurian Three Rivers: the Outcome and Economic Activity of the Russian Cossacks in the 1920—1940s

The article shows the causes of emigration and the exodus of the Russian Transbaikalian Cossacks and the old believers peasants of Primorye to the Manchurian Three Rivers. The characteristic of intercultural relations of Russians with the peoples living in the given territory is given. The main ethnic and religious groups of settlers in Three Rivers are identified. The history of the emergence of the first Russian hares and some of the main settlements on the Manchurian land, including the village Dragotsenka, is highlighted. The main directions of economic activity of the Transbaikalian Cossacks in the Three Rivers are characterized, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing, as well as trade with representatives of various ethnic groups. There is an estimate of the degree of translation in Three Rivers by Russian Transbaikalian Cossacks of economic innovations in all spheres of economic production in the conclusion of the article.

Keywords: Russians, Cossacks, peasant, Orthodox people, old believers, emigration, Transbaikalia, Primorye region, Manchuria, Three Rivers (Trokhrech’ye).

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Dmitriy V. Yanchev

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Problems of Adaptation of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Far East in Modern Situation (on the Example of the Negidal People)

The article is devoted to actual problems of adaptation of the indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East to a difficult situation of a transition period. The main attention is paid to the current situation of local groups of the Negidal people living in the district named after P. Osipenko of the Khabarovsk Territory. The attempts of national communities to enter the market economy are considered; the reasons of their failures are analyzed; objective and subjective factors are revealed; shows the mechanism of interaction of local authorities, various public organizations and indigenous peoples. It has been established that the most viable are the national communities, whose activities are complex and the priorities of which include concern for the preservation of ethnic culture, as well as the transfer of traditions from the older generation to the younger ones. The study is based on documents from local archives and author’s expedition materials.

Keywords: the Russian Far East, indigenous peoples, Negidals, traditional nature use, market economy, national communities.

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Evgenia G. Belaya

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Elena N. Beresneva

Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

Physical Education as a Method of Transmitting Nanaian Culture

Certain social values, ideas, norms of behavior, customs, and rituals are important elements of a national culture. All of them are transmitted and assimilated through education and become part of the tradition in the broad sense of the word. For hunters and fishermen of the vast Amur-Sakhalin historical and cultural region, including the Nanais, physical education is an essential element of culture. In the past, the family acted as the main institution of socialization, with which a person has felt throughout his life. In the family, the upbringing of children strictly corresponded to the sex and age of the child, starting from early childhood, each child knew their responsibilities. Traditional physical education, the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation, one of the conditions for the stability of everyday life and the key to success in fishing and hunting. It was, in general, nature-like. Living in extreme conditions, the Nanais learned to use the harsh climate as a natural factor of hardening. A necessary condition for the adaptation of children was physical and labor training. Together with their work, Nanai children mastered a variety of games, which were one of the main means of physical and labor education. The actual problem, therefore, is the analysis of the current state and continuity in the system of traditional education, as an important element in the preservation of the traditional culture of the Nanaian people. In the article, the authors, on the basis of field material and analysis of the scientific literature, consider the features of the transfer of experience, training of the younger generation and the use of Nanai outdoor games in the modern educational process.

Keywords: Nanai, sport, northern all-around, education.

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