Border conflicts and the security problem of the eastern borders of Russia in the 17th — 20th centuries
Oleg I. Sergeev
Military conflicts on the Asian borders of Russia in the second half of the 19th century and their influence on the development of local Cossacks
The article discusses the problems of the formation of the Asian borders of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century and border conflicts associated with this process, as well as the impact of this situation on the formation and development of the Cossacks of Russia in the region. The expansion of the territory of Russia in Asia was carried out in two directions. Firstly, the movement of Russian people to the east continued. Secondly, the Russian Empire successfully advanced southward. These processes directly affected the Cossacks, since it was necessary to significantly increase the number of existing Cossack units and create new Cossack associations. During this period, the final registration of two Cossack hosts — the Orenburg and Siberian. Four new Cossack troops emerged and took shape: Transbaikal, Amur, Ussuri and Semirechye. During the accession of new territories to Russia, conflicts arose with England, China, Japan and other countries. However, this did not prevent Russia, including with the help of the Cossacks, from successfully resolving its goals.
Keywords: the Russian Empire, Central Asia, the Far East, military conflicts, Cossack troops in the region.
Roman S. Avilov
“To be ready to march off at a moment’s notice…”: the attempt of recrudescence of Manza war in the south Ussuri Region (1874)
This article based on a large body of unpublished documents from RSMHA and NA RF. The author analyzes the attempt of recrudescence of Manza War in South Ussuri Region took place in 1874. It was found that the cause of a hot situation on the border of South Ussuri Region was the development of honghuzi activity in Manchuria. With a high level of probability the bands of china robbers had to infiltrate to South Ussuri Region. The documents told us, that in this situation the Russian regional administration not only considered the experience of Manza War of 1868, but also used it. There was already nothing perplexity. The regional government prevented the enemy actions, and took up the running. All decisions rendered fast, and realized exactly and on a schedule. The level of troop’s combat readiness was not high, but the troops were ready to accomplishment of the objective. It has concluded that this strategy paid off. Well-timed actions of regional power suppressed an approach of recrudescence of Manza War of 1868 in South Ussuri Region.
Keywords: Manza War of 1868, Priamour Military District, P.A. Frederiks, Russian Far East, honghuzi, Manchuria, South Ussuri Region.
Anna S. Zakolodnaia
Security problems of the Far Eastern borders of the Russian Empire: projects of population of the region and their implementation
The article discusses the issues of settlement of the Russian Far East from the middle of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century related to ensuring the security of these territories. The impetus for their development could be a deterioration in the foreign policy situation on the eastern borders of the Russian Empire, a significant decrease in the number of migrants. The selection of the resettlement contingent was also considered in terms of addressing security issues. Despite the absence in the legislative acts of a ban on the resettlement of foreigners to the Priamurskiy kray, nevertheless, their creation of large compact settlements here was considered undesirable. The interdepartmental dispute over the withdrawal of Dukhovsky put on the agenda the question of which of the estates, the Cossacks or the peasantry, best meets the tasks of colonization. The main reasons of which were considered the most dense settlement of the territory to prevent the penetration of Chinese and Koreans, an increase in the production of local products, as well as the potential number of people who could be put into operation in the event of hostilities.
Keywords: Russian Far East, resettlement, safety, foreign colonists, peasantry, Cossacks.
Svetlana B. Beloglazova
Оn the history of the issue of the events of 1929 in Trehrechye
The article analyzes interpretations of events of the autumn of 1929 in Trehrechye region during the Soviet-Chinese conflict on the Chinese Eastern railway, which has been postponed in Russian historiography to the present time. The author believes that the conceptual provisions of the version of these events formulated by the white emigrant press hostile to USSR became the basis for subsequent publications of foreign historians of Russian origin. The connection of white emigrant sources with works of the post-Soviet period is established; this group of works is critically evaluated for their compilation nature and political bias. The research that forms a new conceptual approach based on the patriotic interpretation of events of the autumn of 1929 in Trehrechye region is revealed. The author believes that the understanding of these events at the present stage of the development of national historical thought is represented by ambiguous assessments and is determined by the author’s ideological preferences. The events in Trehrechye region in September-October 1929 still remain a subject for ideological speculations and require of the further study based on the systematic identification and study of the documentary base.
Keywords: Cossacks, Trehrechye, CER, Manchuria, white emigration, military conflict, Soviet Transbaikalia, border troops.
Natal’ya N. Bilim
The attitude of Soviet citizens to the events on CER Railway in 1929
The article is devoted to the Soviet-Chinese armed conflict of 1929 and the reaction of the population to these events. The Chinese leadership in the 1920s, in violation of the Soviet-Chinese agreement on the joint management of the Chinese-Eastern railway, sought to sever relations with the USSR and seize the CER. The events of 1929 stirred up Soviet citizens, most of whom declared their readiness, if necessary, to protect the Soviet power. In the Soviet Far East, the former red partisans were primarily captured by the warlike moods. However, panic moods, as well as agitation against the power of the Soviets and hopes for its fall in the event of war, were quite common. Manifestations of discontent were associated primarily with poorly organized explanatory and educational work of local party and Soviet bodies.
Keywords: pre-conscription trainee, red partisans, the kulaks, the middle peasants, the mass consciousness, the political mood, the Sino-Soviet conflict, Soviet citizens.
Sergey A. Vlasov
Preparing the population of the Primorsky region to protect the Eastern borders of the USSR in the 1930s
The article considers the main aspects of preparing the population of Primorye territory in case of possible aggression from Japan on the basis of archival materials and published sources. It was revealed that in addition to ideological work aimed at educating people’s sense of patriotism and readiness to stand up for the socialist Fatherland, measures were taken to prepare a full-fledged, physically psychologically fit reserve for the armed forces. It was found that a large role was given to physical education and sport, where special attention was paid to the development of military-applied sports (shooting, throwing grenades, hand-to-hand and bayonet fighting, overcoming obstacle courses, paramilitary hiking and skiing). It was noted that the threat of an attack gave rise to excessive suspicion, espionage, as a result of which the regime of residence and residence was tightened, Koreans and Chinese were deported from Primorye. This study, generalization, analysis of specific events and facts allowed us conclude that measures taken contributed to strengthening the security of the Soviet Union’s borders.
Keywords: military-patriotic education, Soviet holiday, physical education and sport, spy mania, training of conscripts.
Ruslan V. Kulepanov
Deployment of the Kvantung army forces in 1939—1942 as a threat of safety for the Soviet Far East
The article examines deployment of Imperial Japanese army in Manchuria 1939—1942. Operational plan “Kantokuen” created by the General Staff of the Imperial Japanese army for occupation of the far eastern region of the Soviet Union, capitalizing on the outbreak of the Soviet-German War in June 1941. After the outbreak of the Great Patriotic war, Foreign Minister Matsuoka began immediately advocating for an abandonment of the Neutrality Pact with the USSR, and demanded an attack in support of Germany. After growing conflict with simultaneous preparations for an offensive in Southeast Asia, Kantokuen began to fall out of favor at Imperial General Headquarters and was eventually abandoned following increased sanctions by the United States and its allies in late July and early August 1941. Nevertheless, the presence of large Japanese forces in Manchuria forced the Soviets to keep considerable military resources on standby for the duration of World War II.
Keywords: World War II, Far East, Manchukuo, Imperial Japanese army, operational plan “Kantokuen”.
Boris B. Kondratenko
Border conflicts on the Far East border of the USSR in 1939—1945
The article considers the aggressive actions of Japanese militarists on the Far East border, gives a historiographical overview of the literature on the subject under study. The author describes the major fighting that took place on the border between the USSR and Manchukuo during World War II; analyzes the impact of border conflicts on the formation and modification of plans to occupy the Russian Far East by Japan, as well as the general situation on the Far East border, the condition of border troops and their readiness to repel the military threat; identifies sections of the border potentially vulnerable to aggression by Manchukuo and Japan. The territory of Manchukuo was turned into a bridgehead for the deployment of armed forces and the conduct of offensive hostilities. Such military-strategic plans of Japan threatened the security of the Far East, as a result of which border troops regularly had to defend the Far Eastern borders on their own. The use of Red Army military units limited the Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact. The Far East was in anticipation of an attack.
Keywords: Far East, World War II, military threats, border, military strategy, border troops, conflicts.
Cross-border interactions of the Far Eastern territories of Russia with the Asia-Pacific countries in the 17th — 20th centuries
Vadim A. Turaev
Russian-Chinese borderland in the 17th century
The article is devoted to the characterization of the Russian-Chinese borderland in the form in which it was formed in the 17th century as a result of the campaigns of V. Poyarkov, E. Khabarov and O. Stepanov. The features of the entry of this territory into the Russian state, its economic development at various stages of the Russian presence, the relationship of the Cossacks with the local population and the Manchu state are considered. The reasons for the defeat of Cossack units in the confrontation with the Manchus are shown. When characterizing the indigenous population of the region, its ethnic composition and migration processes, especially ethnogenesis and ethnic histories of the main population groups are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the main ethnic groups — daurs and duchers. The hypotheses that have developed in Russian literature regarding the origin and ethnic nature of the peoples under consideration are critically evaluated. Based on the characteristics of the border demarcation between Russia and China following the results of the Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689, the space separating the two states is not considered as a border territory, but a buffer zone in which neither side tried to be particularly active.
Keywords: Amur Region, Russia and the Qing Empire, the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, daurs, duchers.
Tatiana Z. Poznyak
Everyday practices of Russian-Chinese cross-border cooperation in the second half of the 19th — the early 20th centuries
The discourse about the closeness and isolation of the Chinese community in the Far East prevailed for a long time in pre-revolutionary and modern historical literature, but it was somewhat transformed with the accumulation of archival material and the expansion of research issues. The investigations on corruption of local police and officials played a big role in changing the view of the nature of interaction between the Russian population and Chinese migrants. Stable relations between the representatives of the Russian authorities and the top of the Chinese community were revealed during the audits in far-eastern cities. Involvement in the shadow economy was not limited only to the top of Chinese society and representatives of officials and police, such ties were built among the urban, peasant and cossack population of the region. The landlords leased their homes to the Chinese at high rents, realizing that the tenants would also make profits in illegal ways. Peasants and Cossacks passed allotment of land on lease to the Chinese and Koreans for growing opium, smuggled opium and alcohol, protected crops, transported goods for tenants, etc.
Keywords: Russia, China, Far East, border, Russian-Chinese cross-border cooperation, Chinese migrants, shadow economy, opium production, corruption, everyday life.
Victoria A. Toshchenkova
The interaction of Far Eastern agricultural societies with foreign entrepreneurs at the beginning of the 20th century
The article is devoted to the interaction of agricultural societies in the south of the Russian Far East with foreign entrepreneurs. The main attention is paid to relations with foreign trading companies (primarily American) of two agricultural companies of the Amur Region — Ivanovsky and Tombovsky-Gilchinsky. The history of their formation is shown, a brief description of the regulatory framework is presented on the basis of which societies of this type were created. It is noted that the result of their interaction with foreign companies was, in particular, the provision of agricultural machinery to peasants of the Amur Region. It also analyzes the activities of Primorsky Region societies, which tried to solve other problems through contacts with foreign entrepreneurs, for example, supplying high-quality seed material, getting acquainted with the latest techniques and methods of farming, etc.
Keywords: agriculture, agricultural society, public organizations, foreign entrepreneurs, the Russian Far East.
Ol’ga A. Ustyugova
Soviet salt on the Japanese market: export prospects (the mid-1920s)
The paper deals with the activities of the All-Union state salt syndicate to promote Soviet salt on the Japanese market before the establishment of Soviet-Japanese diplomatic relations in January 1925. In October 1924, the syndicate opened its Far-Eastern representative office in Vladivostok in order to supply the region with salt and conquer the Japanese salt market by displacing Port Said salt from the Okhotsk-Kamchatka fisheries. Syndicate’s commissioner in the Far East G.A. Zaitsev during his business trip negotiated with Japanese firms in Vladivostok and Japan but did not succeed. He could not sell salt in the conditions of political instability, financial crisis, terms significant influence of the salt monopoly and the dependence of Japanese firms on foreign financing. The lack of objective data on the Japanese salt market caused serious difficulties in selling Soviet salt, while the Port Said Company offered lower prices and favorable credit conditions. Nevertheless, as a result of the activities of salt syndicate’s commissioner G.A. Zaitsev, it was possible to collect data, which syndicate could use to organize the export of Soviet salt to Japan.
Keywords: Soviet Far East, Japan, export, salt, All-Union State Salt Syndicate.
Aleksey V. Maklyukov
Amur complex expedition in 1955—1960: a transboundary aspect and the problem of reliability of results of scientific research
The article discusses the cross-border aspect and the problem of the reliability of the results of scientific research of the Amur Integrated Expedition 1955—1960. It is shown that the 1950s. became a period of close scientific and technical cooperation between the USSR and the PRC. In 1956, the governments of the two countries entered into an agreement on joint research in the Amur basin. In the border region of the Amur Region, more than 300 Soviet and about 400 Chinese specialists worked in various fields of knowledge. Over four years of collaboration, an area of almost 2 million km2 was studied. However, the results of scientific research were influenced by the current policy of the USSR to provide multilateral assistance to China and create a powerful ally in Asia. It is concluded that the expedition as a whole played a huge role in the scientific study of the natural resources of the Amur region. She rallied Soviet and Chinese scientists, this kind of long-term and comprehensive research on cross-border territory was the first in the history of the two countries.
Keywords: Amur complex expedition, Soviet-Chinese scientific relations, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, hydropower, the Russian Far East.
Elena N. Chernolutskaya
Kuril islands in the 1990s: market reforms and the “border issue”
In the 1990s as a result of the collapse of the Soviet state and the policy of “shock therapy”, the island areas experienced an acute economic and social crisis. The Russian reformers saw the main way to overcome it and further territory develop along the market path in attracting domestic and foreign investment and stimulating entrepreneurial activity. To this end, the special economic zone (subzone) of the Kuril Islands was established in 1992, and the Federal program of socio-economic development of the Kuril Islands for 1994—2000 was adopted in 1993. However, the implementation of the projects was extremely inconsistent, reflecting the weakness of budgetary opportunities, as well as the clash of interests of corporate and government structures at various levels. At the same time, the unclear position of the Russian leadership with regard to Japan’s territorial claims on the Southern Kurils and, conversely, Japan’s active attempts to move in solving this problem in its favor have become the main obstacle to the inflow of foreign capital to the Kuril Islands. As for Russian business it was limited mainly to the fishing industry with a significant shady segment. In the second half of the 1990s, there was some growth in this sector. At the same time, the social sphere remained in crisis, which caused a massive outflow of population.
Keywords: market reforms, socio-economic crisis of the 1990s, Kuril Islands, Russian-Japanese “border issue”.
Svetlana M. Dudarenok
The impact of cross-border migrations on the spread of non-traditional religions in primorye in the late 20th — the early 21st centuries2
In the 1990s the Primorsky krai has become one of the favorite places of work of missionaries of non-traditional religions, coming to the region from the United States, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, China and other countries, aiming to change the outlook and the political attitudes of the inhabitants of the Primorye. By the early 1990s the Primorsky krai was almost a secular region, a large part of its population had no experience of “living in God”. The social and spiritual crisis, as well as the unbalanced regional policy of the federal center, contributed to the widespread spread of non-traditional religions in Primorye. The spread of various non-traditional religions in the Primorsky krai began after the signing by President B.N. Yeltsin on September 20, 1991 of Decree No. 123 “On the opening of Vladivostok for foreign citizens to visit”. Cross-border migrations of non-traditional religious missionaries not only contributed to the emergence of non-traditional communities in the Primorsky krai, but also provoked sectarian conflicts. The religious diversity of “foreign” and “domestic” non-traditional religions in the 1990s and 2000s in the province reached 30—40 items. Non-traditional religions, prevalent in the Primorsky krai, influenced mainly young people and intellectuals, pursued different goals and used various forms of activity. By the beginning of the 21st century, interest in non-traditional religions had decreased markedly, indicating the end of the period of religious self-determination of the people of the region.
Keywords: Primorsky krai, non-traditional religions, missionaries, authorities, crisis, God-seeking, meditation, faith.
Angelina S. Vashchuk
Galina G. Ermak
Labor Migrants from Uzbekistan in Primorye: Power — Migrants — Host Community (the Early 21st Century)
The article analyzes the factors of the formation of the Uzbek labor flow in Russia at the beginning of the XXI century, the special features of the stay of citizens from Uzbekistan on the border areas — in the Primorsky Krai. The historical process is disclosed on the basis of the methodology of social history, in particular, in the format of the theory of social transformation. The main research question is the identification of the relationship between migration policy, changes in the scale of labor migration and communications in a society at the stage of social transformation. This stage is regarded as a Trauma Society. Changes in the migration flow and communicative practices of staying citizens from Uzbekistan in the Primorsky Krai are analyzed in the system “power — migrants — host community”. As a result of the study, it was proved that in the early 21 century, labor migrants from Uzbekistan were one of the sources of creating a new class “precariat” in the region. The article concludes that the solution by politicians of the problem of labor shortages by attracting foreign labor migration strengthened the state of “social trauma” in the Far Eastern society. Communication practices were not sufficient to prevent conflicts between the host community and labor migrants, although during the researched period, the conflicts were latent.
Keywords: Russia, Primorsky Krai, Uzbekistan, politics, cross-border migrations, labor migrants, social transformation, communicative practices.