Northwest Pacific Ethnology
Material Culture and Environment Management
Anatoliy F. Startsev
Events of the Soviet Government on the Organization of Hunting among the Natives of the Priamurye and Primorye
The indigenous population of the Priamurye and Primorye has created a special culture focused on the integrated use of water and taiga biological resources. The labor and social activities of the hunting population of the region relied on ethnic traditions conditioned by customary laws that governed relations between people and influenced the course and development of the traditional economy. With the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East and the emergence of a trade and cooperative union of hunters, the life and activities of the natives of the region changed dramatically: the reconstruction of the hunting economy began. This process went along the path of turning individual fishing into an independent collective industry with its own governing and regulatory bodies. Initially, hunting cooperatives of the Dalkraysoyuz were engaged in the organization of hunting, in which a special section was created that directly supervised the work of native cooperatives. The Dalkraysoyuz system was engaged in organizing the procurement and sale of the extracted, supplied hunters with ammunition and other goods, and helped the hunting farms to establish a rational exploitation of the fauna. Consumer cooperatives and the hunters’ fishing and cooperative union played a large role in the hunting activities of the natives of the Far East, although it was very difficult for them to introduce this form of work organization. In 1927, consumer cooperation and other cooperative systems among the indigenous inhabitants of the region were replaced by mixed (integral) type cooperation. The so-called integrated unions were organized in all areas of the region. In each village of the natives there were branches of the cooperative, which were supposed to organize, strengthen and develop hunting, fishing and other industries, harvest wild plants, supply the members of cooperatives with household items, implements of production and crafts. In the second half of the 1930s. Integral cooperation, having fulfilled the functions of uniting the natives of the Amur Region and Primorye into collective farms, ceased to exist.
Key words: Far East region, natives, tradition, hunting, Soviet power, cooperatives, Dalkraysoyuz, integrated cooperation, collective farms.
Roman A. Gritskevich
Settlements of the Sakhalin Ainu under the Conditions of Transformation of the Middle — End of the 19th Century
According to geographical maps and publications, the article examined, analyzed and mapped data on possible settlements, changes in housing conditions and living conditions. Sakhalin in the middle — end of the XIX century in terms of environmental management. This emphasizes the “convenience” of these places. The cost of reducing the number of southern Sakhalin islands, as well as relatively short periods of time. Perhaps due to industrial enterprises, the number of which was constantly growing. There were several nodes that were supposed to trade, and they were “transshipment points”. These were the lowest settlements. The classification of residential buildings by the number of residential buildings: large, medium, small. The neighborhood with the Japanese is described — in almost every settlement there were Japanese houses or barns. This was singled out as a separate economic activity for the Ainu. In developing the articles, the works of modern investigated geographical maps, modern computer technologies and satellite capabilities were used.
Key words: Ainu, Sakhalin, settlement, dwelling, map, transformation.
Andrey P. Samar
Traditional Drags of the Nanai
The article discusses the use of drags by Nanai hunters as an auxiliary vehicle, reveals the evolution of primitive vehicles, as a result of which traditional modes of transport were chronologically and structurally interconnected.
A draper from the skin of the beast is at the origins of the development of primitive transport. Hypothetically, a drag drag of this design became the prototype of all other drag drags. The Nanai people, as well as other peoples of the region, have a single drag structure, the difference is found only in the ways of fastening the luggage — in the southern regions they used bast linden, and in the northern they used leather rope. The differences should also include the design features of the drag for sea Hypericum and taiga hunters. On the coast, it is a frozen skin in the form of a trough, and on the mainland — a bag of skin tightened with a bast rope.
The territorial distribution of dug-in drags covers the areas of resettlement of the Tungus-Manchu, Mongol-Buryats, and Paleo-Asians, and these are Eastern Siberia, Chukotka, Transbaikalia, Amur and Sakhalin. Covering a significant territory with different linguistic cultures, nevertheless, dragoids of this type retained Evenki terminology, which should be considered as the most ancient Tunguska influence. The use of wood for primary vehicles became a decisive factor, and later this material became the basis for subsequent designs.
In the process of evolution, dug-out drags had a fundamental impact on the development of single-boat boats. The main features of the drag drag were the basis of the pointed boat, as a result of which the Amur type of dugout was created.
Keywords: Amur-Sakhalin region, traditional transport, sled, dugout boat, drag, Nanai, Evenk.
Yuriy V. Latushko
Irina E. Pantyukhina
Anzhelika S. Demina
Medicinal Plants in the Modern Life of Nanai People (on Materials of the Field Study)
The article continues to publish the results of field research conducted by the Amur ethnological squad of the IHAE FEB RAS in the summer of 2019 in the Nanai national villages of Kondon, Belgo and their environs. The work is the result of the implementation of the first stage of a comprehensive project to study the historical and cultural landscapes of the North Pacific. One of the objectives of the project is to identify common and special (geographically differentiated) elements of the culture of the indigenous peoples of the Far East. Knowledge of the properties of plants lies in the foundation of the adaptation of human groups to the natural environment since ancient times, with them is intricately connected the symbolic space of culture and its images. This article provides actual information on modern knowledge and usage of plants by the Nanais of the Gorinsky group. For a control comparison, we use the information obtained from the Nanais living in the main channel of the Amur River, in the region of Komsomolsk. The main scientific tools of the work were standardized survey and interviewing, as well as the collection and description of the botanical gathering. The data obtained are correlated with descriptions of previously used plants known in the literature. In fact, it turned out that the same plant is identified today in different ways, the names have been transferred, a significant part of them has been changed by Russian terms, which have become common. We also correlated the declared (attributed) properties of plants with the actual pharmacological action. In the final part of the article, we draw conclusions about the current state of the sphere and nature of the use of plants by Nanai people and pose questions that require additional research.
Keywords: cultural anthropology, Amur River, Nanai people, folk knowledge, plants, modern usage.
Vladimir V. Podmaskin
Roman V. Gvozdev
Historical and Cultural Relations of Ainu, Tungus-Manchus, Nivkh: Problems of Ethnogenesis and Ethnic History
The ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Ainu, Nivkh and Tungus-Manchus of Sakhalin, which until recently retained archaic features in production, social structure and culture, is a big and complex problem. In recent decades, interest in it has increased dramatically not only due to the increased attention to the mysteries of the ancient history of the Pacific region, but also due to the extensive archaeological study of Sakhalin, in-depth anthropological research and the accumulation of ethnographic and folklore materials. On the basis of historical and ethnographic, linguistic data and folklore collections, the article examine the mutual influence of Ainu, Tungus-Manchu and Nivkh cultures in the pre-Soviet period. In the process of ethnic mixing, there were changes in anthropological types and the complexity of the anthropological composition of the considered ethnic groups, borrowings in the economy, material and spiritual culture, language, there were certain changes in social and family life, etc. All this, along with other reasons, contributed to the development of the economy and leveling of spiritual culture. The materials of the article are of interest for the study of ethnic interactions and interrelations on Sakhalin, relating to the later stages of ethnogenesis, as well as for understanding the specifics of it.
Keywords: Ainu, Tungus-Manchus, Nivkh, mutual influence of cultures, tribal ties, lexical parallels, myths, legends, beliefs, trade, Sakhalin Island.
Vladimir V. Podmaskin
Uilta-Russian Historical and Cultural Relations on Sakhalin (Mid-19th — Early 21th)
The history of economic, political, cultural, domestic, and family-marriage relations between Uilta and the Russian population is more than 150 years old. Thanks to the massive Russian colonization of Sakhalin there is a gradual assimilation and acculturation of all indigenous inhabitants of the island, defined the modern ethnic territory natural resources, population, ethnic identity, ethnic boundaries are drawn in the area of contacts with sedentary neighbors are highlighted in the ethnographic group. The study of ethnic relations showed the active participation of the Russian population in the ethnic history of the Uilta. Russian ethnic group lost its former national economic specificity (reindeer husbandry) in the prevailing Russian ethnic environment, and Russian borrowing in the types of dwellings, furniture and utensils, clothing, dishes, and food was manifested. Numerous borrowings are found in the social sphere, language, toponymy, value orientation, and family composition. As a result of the process of ethnic mixing, there was a change in the anthropological type and a complication of the anthropological composition of ethnic groups. The Uilta converted to Christianity. The higher level of Russian culture in terms of stadiums proved to be dominant in the system of inter-ethnic communications, contributed to the development of the economy and culture of the Uilta, enriched the lexical composition of the language and influenced all aspects of life.
Keywords: Uilta (Oroki, Orochon), ethnic communication, personal communication, group communication, cultural communication, economic communication, political communication, borrowings, Sakhalin.
Kirill S. Kartavtsev
Functions of Neotraditionalism of the Aleuts of the Commander Islands in the 21st Century
At the present stage of ethnographic and socio-anthropological research in Russia, the problem of neotraditionalism, neotraibalism and archaism has been considered by many authors: Ch.K. Lamazhaa, V.A. Lapshin, S.A. Madyukova, Yu.V. Popkov, and others. Research has shown that neotraditionalism has its own regional specifics, but there are some universal forms of its manifestation: socio-political, economic, festive-ceremonial, ethical, etс. It is promising for the study to trace the formation of this phenomenon in island communities, which are characterized by complex and well-established communication mechanisms. The article analyzes the functions of neotraditionalism on the example of the commander aleuts, as well as some aspects of modern island culture: nature management, cuisine, holidays, ensembles, etc. Modern elements of the Aleut culture are considered, which are, on the one hand, new traditions, and on the other — a renaissance of ethnic consciousness. It is shown that in the modern period neotraditionalism acts as a form of adaptation of ethnic groups to new conditions in connection with crises, globalization and changing inter-ethnic relations. Under the influence of this adaptation, life forms, culture, relationships, and institutions are transformed.
Keywords: Aleuts, Commander Islands, neotraditionalism, social and cultural adaptation.
Social Transformation and Folklore
Lidiya E. Fetisova
The Impact of Social Transformations on the Folklore Culture of the Indigenous Peoples of the Amur-Sakhalin Region
The article is devoted to system changes in traditional folklore of the Amur-Sakhalin region under the impact of social transformations that associated with formation of statehood in the middle ages, in modern and modern times. The research showed the depth of historical memory of oral narratives that preserved the names of disappeared tribes of Siberia and the Far East. The impact of Manchu-Chinese culture on the oral creativity of Tungus-speaking peoples is considered. At the same time, the analysis of the areal distribution of folklore images, motives and plots revealed the special viability of the basis part of native folklore. The primary fund of historical narratives, formed on a mythological basis, continued to be used to create new stories in the 19th and 20th centuries. Features of traditional thinking are shown on the legends about the triumphant performance that aborigine shamans demonstrated to the representatives of the state authorities. The author emphasizes that even today the indigenous peoples consider folklore heritage an important component of their culture.
Keywords: Tungus-Manchu folklore, Amur-Sakhalin region, middle ages, modern and modern times, images, motives, plots.
Tatiana V. Krayushkina
The Motive of Blood as a Means of Manipulating Consciousness in Russian Folk Songs of the Civil War of Siberia and the Far East
The article explores the blood motif as a means of manipulating consciousness in Russian folk songs of the Civil War period. As a material for analysis, 345 texts recorded in Siberia and the Far East in 1918—1971 were used. Oral folklore is considered not only as a system of knowledge about different spheres of human life, a set of moral principles, a unique artistic sphere, but also as a one with significant potential for the formation and implementation of new values. In scientific terms, folklore material is of great importance for the study of suggestive effects. The purpose of this article is to identify the specifics of using the blood motive in the songs of the Civil War period as a means of manipulating popular consciousness. The frequency of motive use and its semantic content as ways of mass suggestive impact on consciousness are analyzed. As a characteristic of blood, emphasis is placed on blood belonging to different social classes, and the place of blood flow, its color, movement, temperature, volume are used. Blood functions come down to six: it is associated with the function of the victim (57%), pay (24.6%), revenge, retaliation (8.7%), indicates kinship, or performs a kinship function (3.5%), is associated with emotions (3.5%), indicates age (0.8%). It is concluded that the songs of the Civil War period, thanks to the widely used lexico-semantic method of verbal manipulation, in which the frequently used motive is given a lot of blood, not only raised the morale of the people, but also contributed to the formation of perception as the only true political position of the red movement.
Keywords: song folklore, Russian folk songs, Civil War, blood, manipulations, suggestion, Siberia, Far East.
Galina A. Andriets
Reflection of Russian-Japanese Contacts in Everyday Culture Russian Far East (the End of the 19th Century — the Beginning of the 20th Century)
The Russian-Japanese interaction in the everyday culture of the Far East of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s is considered as a result of the active settlement of the eastern outskirts and the formation of the Japanese diaspora. There is a predominance of Japanese migrants in the service and craft sectors. The problems of adaptation of Japanese immigrants to new living conditions were solved by creating Russian language courses and opening children’s schools. It was revealed that a lot of work on the study of the Japanese language, history, geography, and economics of Japan was carried out by the Oriental Institute of Vladivostok. The place of communication, entertainment and the strengthening of friendly ties between Japanese citizens was the Vladivostok club “Uradsiosutoku Nihondzin Kurabu” (1902). It is shown how the Japanese honored and observed their traditions, especially in culture of food and clothing, celebrated Russian, Japanese and Chinese holidays, the New Year and holidays associated with the imperial family were widely celebrated. It was emphasized that after the Russo-Japanese War, “Japanese publications” began to appear, acquainting compatriots with Russian classical literature of the 19th century, especially with the prose of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. It is emphasized that in the 20th century new forms of cultural activity have arisen, allowing you to learn more about countries formerly considered exotic, including Japan. Great work in this direction was carried out by the Vladivostok society “Seaside excursionist”. It is noted to activities in Vladivostok the Japanese newspaper “Urazzio Nippo” (1917—1922). In general, Russian-Japanese contacts testified to culture as the fundamental basis of the process of development, preservation, strengthening of the sovereignty and identity of the people who are in unusual environment.
Keywords: Russian-Japanese contacts, Russian Far East, Japan, everyday culture, interaction.
Elena O. Kirillova
“Nature-Like” Representations, Superstitions and Fairy Tales in the Story of S.-M. Salinsky “Birds Come Back to Dreams” (to the Problem of Ethnocultural Interaction in the Conditions of the Far East Transboundary Region)
The article continues the author’s research of literary works belonging to the Russian-Polish writer S.-M. Salinsky (1902, Kraskino, Khasansky district, Primorsky Krai, the Russian Empire — 1969, Warsaw, Poland), who is quite unknown in Russia. The research object is S.-M. Salinsky’s autobiographical story “Birds come back to dreams”, which is based on the Far Eastern material. The story was published in 1964. For the first time into Russian the story was translated in Vladivostok in 2015. S.-M. Salinsky actively addresses conventional oral folklore (fairy tales, myths and legends) of the foreign population of South Ussuri Krai at the end of XIX — the first quarter of the XX centuries as well as different Far Eastern ethnoses such as Koreans, Chinese, Udege and Tazy, living in that territory at the time. The story is of interest in terms of studying problems of cross-cultural interactions and literary realization of foreign culture contacts. This makes it possible to mark the problem of syncretism, connection, interrelationship of religious and rite institutions, representations, superstitions of the indigenous small population of the South Far East, as well as displaced people — Koreans and Chinese, this helps to identify the commonality of their mythopoietic representations, beliefs, rituals. It is seen that such commonality of spiritual and moral representations was due to inevitable foreign culture contacts caused by cohabitation of different ethnoses in the territory of the Pacific Russia.
Keywords: S.-M. Salinsky, “Birds come back to dreams”, N.G. Garin-Mikhailovsky, Far East transboundary region, ethnocultural interactions, Korean fairy tales, Udege folklore, Tazy.