Yuriy E. Vostretsov
Peschany-1 Site: from V.K. Arseniev to Us
The article discusses some aspects of the study of the classic site of the Yankovsky culture of the Iron Age Peschany-1 during the last 100 years. The author analyzes the methodological positions of the authors of the excavations of the ancient site and the stages of development of the methodology of field research of shell middens — one of the most complex archaeological objects. The growth of the informative potential of the use of various methods of studying kitchen residues with mollusks shells is analyzed. The development of understanding of stratigraphy, structure and processes of formation of deposits with mollusk shells is considered, which allowed reconstructing the processes of adaptation of the subsistence system of the ancient population to the changing environment.
Keywords: human behavioral ecology, maritime adaptation, shell middens, field research methodology, Peschany-1 site, Iron Age, Primorye, East Asia.
Alexander A. Orekhov
The Neolithic Problems of the Upper Kolyma, Chukotka and Kamchatka (Experiment of Comparative Analysis)
Article contains the experiment of comparative analysis the complexes and cultures of the Early and Late Neolithic of the Upper Kolyma, Chukotka and Kamchatka. This is variant the complex analysis the development the stone industry, ecology-economic systems, way of life, elements the development of society. It’s define the possible of chronological phase, typical elements of the Early and Late Neolithic of the regional. The article gives the matter the questions and problems of novation’s, innovations, transformations, the cultural transmission in the development Early and Late Neolithic process and crossing from the one period historical development to another. In correspond with these periods of the historical development to project the variants of form ecology-economic systems (continental and maritime) in the North extremely conditions. Talk about questions of the interrelation the stone industry traditions complexes and archaeological cultures of the Upper Kolyma, Chukotka and Kamchatka and contiguous territory of Yakutia and Alaska.
Keywords: Upper Kolyma, Chukotka, Kamchatka, Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic, innovations.
Irina V. Belova
Nikolay A. Klyuev
Pottery with a Meander Ornament at the Vodopadnoe-7 Settlement in South Primorye
The article is devoted to the analysis of pottery with a meander ornament from the Late Neolithic complex of the Vodopadnoe-7 settlement, which belongs to the southeastern group of the Zaisanovka cultural, which has been little studied to date. A detailed description of the morphological and technological features of the vessels, their parameters, as well as ornamental schemes is given. A comparative analysis of ceramics with a meander ornament from the complex of the Vodopadnoe-7 settlement with materials from other sites of the Zaisanovka cultural is carried out. The greatest similarity, expressed in the forms of vessels, the technique of applying the ornament and its composition, can be traced with the complexes of the Khanka Lake-side variant. But unlike the vessels with a meander ornament at the Khanka Lake-side sites, the items at the Vodopadnoe-7 settlement are not classified as a separate category of ceremonial utensils.
Keywords: Primorye, Late Neolithic, Southeastern group of Zaisanovka cultural community, Vodopadnoe-7 settlement, ceramic complex, meander.
Yury G. Nikitin
Paleometal Sites of Razdolnaya River Valley
The article deals with the results of an archaeological survey of the middle reaches of Razdolnaya River valley from Ussuriysk City to the China border, which were, discover more than 250 new archeological sites, including Paleometal settlements and fortified sites. The author introduces some new archaeological materials into the scientific circulation, based of which he try to determine the possibility reconstruction of the settlement system in the middle part of Razdolnaya River valley in the Paleometal period. The author pays special attention to the consideration of fortified settlements that appear on the territory under consideration precisely in the Paleometal era. In the process of studying materials of the Paleometal epoch, the author concludes that at today’s level of archaeological study of the territory, it is not possible to identify the settlement system of the Paleometal era based on an analysis of the geographical distribution of sites. However, there is no doubt that the appearance along the valley fortified sites associated with the migration of alien population who brought a new tradition of making pottery, unknown of an earlier time. The author notes that to determine the settlement pattern of the Paleometal epoch, further archaeological research is needed, whereas to date, only five sites of the Paleometal era have been fully (or partly) excavated.
Keywords: archaeology of Primorsky Krai, Razdolnaya river valley, settlements, Paleometal epoch.
Olga V. Dyakova
Elena V. Sidorenko
Vladimir E. Shavkunov
Irina V. Sayapina
<Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.>
Cultural Indentification of the Molennoye-1 Site in the Light of Stratigraphic Composition
Based on stratigraphic and planigraphic research methods, the paper analyzes the results of studying the Molennoye-1 site in the Olginsky district of Primorye, which, based on the results of preliminary studies, was identified as a multicomponent fortified settlement and dated in a wide chronological range: Paleometallic — Middle Ages. The natural protection of the hill on which the monument is located, its location at the confluence of a stream and a river, a convenient flat top determined the prospects for settling this place in antiquity. Scientific tasks included establishing the structure of the site, stratigraphy, cultural identification, the time of construction, the nature and type of fortifications. The studies carried out by the Amur-Primorsky archaeological expedition at three levels of the Molennoye-1 site in 2020 allow us to state that only the layer of the Yankovskaya culture of the Early Iron Age was traced stratigraphically. It was the Yankovites who were the first to equip a steep rocky slope, clearing and leveling the place for housing depressions and terraces. Stones were piled along steep slopes and terraces, forming a multi-level defense system. Arrangement of a settlement on a hard-to-reach and naturally fortified hill dominating the valley of the river Avvakumovka, testifies that the Yankovites experienced pressure from their neighbors in the struggle for hunting and fishing lands. The monument is tentatively dated to the late stage of the Yankovskaya culture; the materials contain traces of contacts with representatives of the Lidovskaya culture. The presence of fortifications allows us to consider it as a settlement.
Keywords: archaeology, Primorye, stratigraphy, Yankovskaya culture, Lidovskaya culture, fortifications, settlement.
Maxim A. Stoyakin
The Current Situation on the Study of the Bohai Fortified Settlements in the DPRK
The article is related to the analysis of the Bohai fortified settlements on the modern DPRK territory. The historiography of the issue is observed, it can assume that the study of monuments in the North Korea is not perfect, information about Bohai fortified settlements also is poorly presented in Russian historiography. The results of Bohai plane and mountain fortified settlements studies were considered. In that region mountain fortified settlements are dominated. The author summarizes the results of research by North Korean archaeologists and historians, pay attention to the features of the location, characteristic of fortification, describes the technological methods used by ancient builders in the construction, and also provides data on the discovered objects and archaeological material. Mountain settlements were located in groups near a plane fortified settlement. They all most likely marked sections of the international “road to Silla”, and were also associated with nearby burial and temple complexes, some of them used since Koguryo. The role of fortified settlements in the administrative structure of Bohai are analyzed, the influence of geographical and historical factors, and traditions on the formation of Bohai complexes in this territory are mentioned.
Keywords: DPRK, Bohai, Koguryo, Unified Silla, fortified settlement, capital, administrative centers.
Irina S. Zhushchikhovskaya
On the Problem of “Stoneware” Ceramics at Medieval Sites of Primorye Region
Article is considering the problem of identification of “stoneware” ceramics at archaeological medieval sites of Primorye region. Objective characteristics of “stoneware” ceramics are the water absorption index and microstructure of body, in particular the degree of vitrification, as the results of firing technology profile. The research is based on the materials of Bohai period (698—926) and Jin period (1115—1234) sites. It is revealed that “stoneware” ceramic matrix of different quality is characteristic feature of some kinds of imported Jin glazed ware. The assemblages of ordinary unglazed pottery produced locally show single cases of ceramic matrix of coarse “stoneware” quality.
Keywords: ceramics, glazed wares, “stoneware” body, vitrification, water absorption.
Irina E. Pantyukhina
Anzhelika S. Demina
<Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.>
Experience in Contamination Level Assessment in the Archaeological Office Studying Ancient Starch
Any method should take into account factors that can distort the research result and affect the validity of the conclusions. The residue archeology includes a range of natural science methods that require certain level of purity. Often it is impossible to separate modern and ancient objects either by optical or physicochemical methods at the microcosm level. Therefore, the problem of contamination of artifacts with modern micro-residues is urgent. The authors apply the archaeobotanical method of ancient starch analysis to reconstruct the diet and subsystems of ancient humans. One of the significant for this method is the problem of contamination of artifacts with modern starches in the process of laboratory works. The industry widely uses this substance in various fields. This creates the risk of contamination of the samples, erroneous definitions and conclusions. For laboratories working with ancient starch, the elimination of modern starches is a major objective. This article describes the experience of identifying, preventing/controlling modern contamination using available methods within the usual office of archaeologists. When looking for solutions, we took into account the properties of starch, which contribute to its movement in space and preservation. Sources of starch and distribution zones have been identified. The study evaluated the effectiveness of acts to prevent and control modern and cross contamination with starch. The proposed solutions significantly reduce the resource consumption of the method.
Keywords: ancient starch research, starch contamination, micro-residue archaeology.
Irina Yu. Ponkratova
Lyubov S. Lebedeva
<Northeastern State University, Magadan, Russia.>
Sergey V. Batarshev
<Scientific and Production Center of Historical and Cultural Expertise, Vladivostok, Russia.>
Foreign Entrepreneurs in the History of the “Territory”: Gizhiginsk in the 1920—1930
The article is devoted to the history of the first city of the Magadan region — Gizhiginsk (1752—1930). On the basis of archaeological, archival and historical materials, the peculiarities of the functioning of individual figures and campaigns of foreign states in the remote northern territory are reconstructed. It is established that at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th century, Chinese and Japanese firms, as well as Iostako Gentaro, Oginuno Sozaro, Sano Sukedzi, conducted trade, fishing and fur smuggling in Gizhiginsk and its environs, American O. Svenson, esaul V. Bochkarev et al. Trade in alcoholic beverages and uneven commodity exchange contributed to drunkenness and impoverishment of the local population.
Key words: North of the Russian Far East, Gizhiginsk, archeology, archival documents, foreign-made goods, fishing and fur trade, Japanese trading post, trade, smuggling.